Skip to main content

Full text of "Pacific Islands: Sailing Directions for the Tubuai, Cook, and Society ..."

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 




\ 



e00025540M 





Ill 



I25540M 




Official Copy. 

PACIFIC ISLANDS, VOL. III. 

(EASTERN CROUPS.) 



SAILING DIRECTIONS 



rOB THB 



TUBUAI, COOK, AND SOCIETY ISLANDS; 
PAUMOTU OR LOW ARCHIPELAGO; 

MARQUESAS ; 

SCATTERED ISLANDS NEAR THE EQUATOR, 

AND THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



COMPILED TBOM TABIOUS SOURCES. 







\ 




FVBUSHKD BT O&DEB OF THE LOBDS OOMMISSIONEBS OF THE ADHIBALTT. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOB THB BTDROGRAPHIC OFFICE, ADMIRALTY; 

▲NJD SOLD BY 

J. D. POTTER, Aqent for the Sale of Admiralty Charts, 

31 POULTRY, AND U KING STREET, TOWER HILL. 

> 1885. 



Price Tv^o ShiUin^a and Sixpence. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



This ^ork contains Sailing Directions for the Tubuai^ Cook, 
and Society islands^ Faumotu or Low Archipelago^ Marquesas and 
scattered islands near the equator, and the Sandwich islands. 

These directions have been compiled from various sources, the 
voyages of the early navigators supplying much useful information, 
which has been supplemented by the later and more detailed 
surveys by the French and Hawaiian Governments, together with 
the remarks and journals of officers of Her Majesty's Ships 
employed on the Australian and Pacific stations. 

The Tubuai and Cook islands have been described by Captain 
Cook, 1769-77, Admiral KJnisenstern, Russian Navy, 1803, and the 
officers employed on the French surveys of recent date. The 
Society islands by Captains Wallis, 1767, Cook, 1769-77, F. W. 
Beechey, 1826, FitzRoy, 1835, and the detailed surveys by the 
officers of the French Navy from 1844 to 1884. The Paumotu 
archipelago by Captains Cook, 1769-74, F. W. Beechey, 1825-26, 
and Captain Wilkes, XJ.S.N., 1841, together with the reports by 
officers of the French Navy surveying among the group. The 
Marquesas islands by Captain Cook, 1774, Admiral Knisenstem, 
1803, and the officers of the French Government surveys. The 
Sandwich islands by Captains Cook, 1778, Vancouver, 1793, and 
Sir Edward Belcher, 1838, Captain Wilkes, U.S,N., 1841, Rev. 
Wm, Ellis, in his work " Polynesian Researches," 1853, and the 
surveys by officers under the Hawaiian Government. Much addi^ 
tional detailed information relative to the various localities has been 
received from time to time from the officers, both of the Royal and 
Mercantile Navies of various nationalities, navigating these seas. 

The portions of Hydrographic Notices of the Pacific Ocean, Nos. 
1 to 68, relative to this work have also been incorporated. 

The directions have been compiled by Lieutenants G. E. Richards, 
and G. C. Frederick, R.N., of the Hydrographic Department 

W. J. L. W. 

Hydrofprapliic Office, Admiralty, Londofii 
November 1885. 

a 1661$. Wt.dd68i. a 2 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



As far as has been found possible, the native names in this book are spelt 
in accordance with the following system, which will gradually be introduced 
into all Admiralty Sailing Directions. 

Where native names have been so long written in a form, which, though 
not in accordance with this system, has become familiar to English eyes 
from being so spelt in all charts and maps, they are retained, and no 
European names are changed from their correct orthography. 

Information as to the^'proper spelling of native names so as to produce 
the nearest approximation to the true sound, by this system, is invited, but 
it must be remembered that only an approximation is aimed at. The 
position of the accent denoting the syllable on which emphasis, or the 
** stress," should be laid is very important, as the sound of so many words 
is utterly changed by its ignorant misplacement. 



Letters. 



Pronunciation and B«mark8. 



Examples. 



a 
1 



o 
u 



ai 
aa 
ao 
ei 
b 
c 



ch 



ah J a as m father - - . - 

eh, e as in benefit - _ - - 

English e ; i as in ravine ; the sound of ee in beet. 

Thus, not Feejee, but 

o as in mote -..*.. 
long u as m flute ; the sound of oo in boot. 

Thus, not Zooloo, but 

All rowels are shortened in sound by doubling 
the following consonant. 



Doubling^ of a vowel is only nocensary where 

there is a distinct repetition of the single 

sound. 
English t as in ice - - . 

ow as in how - - thus, not Foochow, but 

is slightly different from above - - - 

as ey in English they - - . • 

English b, 
is always soft, but is so nearly the sound of 8 that 

it should be seldom used. 
If Celebes WAS not already recognised it would 

be written Selebes, 
is always soft as in church - ^ .. 



Java. Wana Wana. 
Banana. 

Tel-el-Kebir. Levu. 
Medina. 

Fiji. Tahiti. 

Hindi. 

Tokio. MaUicolo. 

Zulu. Up<51u. 
Sumatra. 
Yarra. Tanna. 
Mecca. Lakenna. 
Jidda. Mille. 
Bonny. Korror. 
Budda. 

Eaaba. Haano. 
Oosima. Nuulua. 

Shanghai. Mai. 
Fuchau. Marau. 
Macao. Palao. 
Beirut. Nei-afo. 

Celebes. 



Chiogchin. EomachU. 



VI 



Letters. 


Pronnnciation and Remarks. 


Examples. 


d 


English d. 




f 


English/. It should always be put for ph. 

Thus, not Maipnong, bat 






Haifong. Bofei. 


e 


is always hard. (Soft g is given by J) - 


Galapagos. Gogan. 


h 


is always pronoanced when used. 




• 


Englishj - - - - - 


Japan. Euaji. 


. 




Jinchuen. 


k 


English A. It should always be put for the 
hardc. 






Thus, not Corea, but 


Korea. Eulambangra. 


kh 


The Arabic guttural «... 


Khan. 


gh 


is another guttural, as in the Turkish - 


Dagh. 


I 


^ 


Ghazi. 


m 
n 


xAs in English. 




P 

q 

r 


should never be employed ; qa is given as A10 . 


Ewangtung. Kwakwaru 


s 
t 

V 


- As in English. 




w 




Sawakin. Maiwo. 


X 

y 


is always a consonant, as in yard, and therefore 
should never be used as a terminal, i or e being 
substituted. 


Kikuyu. Yemyu, 




Thus^ not idikind&ny^ but 


Mikindani. Singavi. 




nor Kwaly but 


Kwale. Faluale. 


E 


English z - - - . . 


Zulu. 




Accents should not generally be used, but where 


Tongatabu. 




there is a very decided emphatic syllable. 


Galapagos. 




which alters the sound of the word, it should 


Palawan. 




be marked by an acuU accent. 





. * fl 

Vll 



CONTENTS. 



OHAtTER I. 

GENERAL BEHAUKS. — * WINDS. — OTIBEBNTS. — OUTLYING 
BEEFS AND BEPOBTED DANGEBS. — BAIPA ISLAND. — 

TUBUAI OB AUSTBAL ISLANDS. — COOK ISLANDS. 

Page 

Oenehd remarks* Winds. . Hurricanesr Currents ... i^ 
Maria Theresa reef. L'Orne bank. Haymet rodu. Neilsen reef. Bass 

islands ----.k-.-. 6-7 

Rapa island; Ahureibay. Winds and weather • . - . 7-10 
Tubuai islands; Winds; Vaviiao; Tubuai; Rurutu; ^mitara; Hull 

islands ---i-.-... 10.13 
Cook islands; Winds; Mangaia; Barotonga; Mauki; Miti^ro; Atiu; 

Takutea; Henrey islands ; Aitutaki - ^ . - - 13-18 



CHAPTER II. 



SOCIETY ISLANDS. 



19-21 

21-23 

24 

24-25 

26-27 

27-28 



29-32 
32-^ 



Discovery. General remarks. Climate . - . . 

Winds. Bevolving storms. Currents. Tides. Products. Mails 
Maitea or Mehetea island ..... 

Tahiti; Winds; Currents . - - . . 

Point Venus ; position ; light; Matavia bay^ banks, directions - 
Papawa harbour ; Taunoa pass and channel - - 

Papiete harbour> pass> currents, reefs, leading marks, directions, town 

supplies - - - - - - , - 

Taapuna pass, directions ; Punaavia bay ; Maraa paas ; Beefs - 

Popote bay ; Taevaraa pass ; Aifa pass ; Bautirare pass ; Temarauri pass 35-37 

Hotumatuu pass; Teputo pass; Port Phaeton; Tapueraha pass ; Ava- 

icipass; Havaepass; Vaiaupass; Tutataroa pass ... 38-41 
Banks; Tomotai and Vaiurua passes; Vaionifa pass; Tautira bay; 

Taharoapass; Taravaobay; Papeivipass; Port Vaitoare - - 41-45 

Beefs; Boudeuse pass; Mahaena pass; Beefs; Art^mise bank; Ono- 

heha pass ; Papenu pass ; Port Motu Au - - • . 46-48 

Murea or Eimeo island ; Cook bay ; Papetoai' bay ... 49-50 

Channel between Murea and Tahiti. Tetiaroa island. Tapamanu island 51 

Huaheine island ; Owharre harbour. Baiatea island ; Uturoa harbour. 

Tahaa island ; anchorage . . . - . . 52-54 

Bolabola island ; Otea-Vanua harbour. Tubal or Motu-iti. Mama or 

Mftupiti. Mopelia. SciUy islands. Bellingshausen island - - 55-57 



vm 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

EASTEE ISLAND. — SALA-Y-GOMEZ ISLAND.— PATJMOTU OR 

LOW ARCHIPELACK). 

Page 
Easter island ; description ; Coo}i bay ; -mnds ... - 58-61 

Salfr-y-Gomez. Scott reef * - - - . . - 61-62 

Paumotu orLowarchipelagG; discoveries; winds; tides j currents - 62-64 
Ducie island. Henderson island - ...» 64 

Pitcairn island ; history 3 Bounty bay ; Winds • - - . 65-66 

Oeno island. Minerva or Ebrill reef. Portland reef. Timoe island « 67-68 
Manga Reva or Gambier islands. Morane ; Moerenbut ; and Marutea 

islands- - - - - - . - - - 68-71 

Actaeon group. Fangatau&; Mururoa; Tematangi; Tureia; Vana- 

Vana; and Duke of Gloucester islands * - ... 71-73 

Hereheretue ; Reao ; Pukaruha ; Tatakoto ; Pinaki ; Nukutavake ; Vai- 

raatea ; Vahitahi ; and Akiaki islands - - . . . 73-7^ 

Ahunui; Paraoa; ManuhaDgi ; Nengonengo; Hao; and Amanu 

islands; Two Groups ------- 76-77 

Reitoru; Uaraiki; Hikueru; Tekokoto; Taueri; Rekareka; Marutea; 

Nihiru ; and Fakaina islands - , - - - - - 78-79 

Angatau; Puka Puka; Disappointment islands; Takume; Raroia; 

Taenga ; Makemo ; and Katiu islands , . . . 79-81 

Raeffsky islands ; Motutunga : Tahanea ; Anaa ; Faaite ; Fakarava ; 

Raraka ; and Kauehi islands • - « . - . - 81-84 

Taiaro; ^atika; Toau; Niau; Kaukura; Apataki; Arutua; Tikei; 

and King George islands - - - - - - 84-86 

Manihi ; . Ahii ; Nairsa; Tikehau; Matabiva; and Makatea islands -^ 86-89 



CHAPTER IV. 

MARQUESAS ISLANDS. — SCATTERED ISLANDS NEAR THE 

EQUATOR. 



Marquesas islands ; discovery ; winds ; currents ; directions 
Fatu-biva or Magdalena island ; Bon Repos bay ; Virgins bay - 
Thomasset rock. Motane or San Pedro island . - - - 

Tau-ata or Santa Christina island; Resolution bay; Hapatoni bay; 

Bordelais strait - - - " - 

Hiva-oa or Dominica island ; Perigot bay ; Hana-iapa bay; Hana-menu 

bay; Taa-bu-ku bay ; currents ■''."' 

Fatu-huku or Hood island. Ua-pu or Adams islands; Vaieo bay; 

Akatau or Bay of Friends ; Hakahau bay ; Aneau bay 
Ua-buka or Washington island ; Shavay bay ; Invisible or Vaitake bay ; 

Ilannay bay --?•?■'''"- 



90-92 

93-94 

94 

95-96 

96-100 

100-102 

103-104 



CONTENTS. ix 

Page 
Nukuhiva or Marchand island : Comptroller bay ; Anna Maria or Tai-o- 

ha^bay; PortTai-oa; Anahobay; Hakaehau bay - - - 104-1109 

Hergest rocks or Motu-iti. Lawson bank. Clark bank. Eiao or Masse 

island. Hatutu or Chanal island. Coral islands - . . 110-111 

Flint island. Caroline island. Penrhyn island. Starbuck island - 112-114 

Maiden island. Jarvis island. Christmas island. Farming island - 1 15-1 19 
Washington island. Palmyra island. Kingman reef. Caldew reef. 

Maria shoal. Diana shoal -----. 120-122 



CHAPTER V. 

HAWAII OR SANDWICH ISLANDS. — ISLANDS, ROCKS, AND 

SHOALS. 

Position ; discovery ; earthquakes ; supplies ; winds ; currents - - 123-126 

Hawaii ; volcanoes ; Hilo bay ; town ; anchorage ; directions - - 126-132 

Mahukona ) Kawaihae bay ; light ; anchorage ; Kailua bay - - 132-135 

Kealakekua bay ; directions ; anchorage ; earthquake. Alenuibaha 

channel .----.-. 135-138 

Maui island; Mauna Haleakala ; Hana harbour ; Kahului harbour - 138-141 
Lahaina ; anchorage ; Kamalalaea bay ; Makena or Makee's landing - 142-144 
Molokini. Kahulaui. Lanai. Molokai ; Kaunakakai; Kalanao - 144-147 

Oahu ; east coast ; Waimea bay ; west coast ; Pearl lochs - - 148-152 

Honolulu ; mails ; climate ; supplies ; patent slip ; anchorage ; harbour ; 

lights ; buoys and beacons ; directions - . . . 152-15/ 

Diamond hill ; signal station : Waikiki - - . - - 157 

Kauai; Nawiliwili harbour ; Hanaleibay; Waimea bay; Kaloa bay - 158-163 
Niihau ; Yam bay ; Cook's anchorage ; directions ; Rollers. Kaula or 

Tahura. Bird island - ^ . . . . . 164-1 «6 

Johnston island. Schjetman reef. Krusenstern rock. Necker island - 166-167 
French Frigate shoal. Brooks shoal. Gardner island. Maro reef. 

Dowsett reef. Laysan island. Lisiansky island - - « 168-170 

Pearl and Hermes reef. Gambia bank. Midway islands; Welles 

harbour . ^ - - - - . , 170-173 

Cure or Ocean island. Patrocinio or Byer island. Morrell island. 

Mellish bank. Ganges island or reef - .... 173-174 

Table of positions - - - - - - - 175 

Tide table -------- 176 

Index 177-186 



u 16615. 




&0« Vi 







J 



f' 



f 



« 

i 



Xir TBXS VrORX TBB BBABZVOS AMB ASmJm mcaonbtzc, 
BXCBPT "VrBBBB MABBBD AS TBUB. 



TBB BZSTABCBS ABB BBFBB88BD ZB 8BA MZZiBS OF 
60 TO A BBOBBB OF ZfaATZTVBB. 

OBB CAB&B Z8 A88VMBD TO BB BQVA& TO 

lOO FATB01II8. 

« 

TBB Bomri^moB Ans bbducbb to tbb bbptb8 of kovt 

VTATBB OF OBBZBABT SFBZBO TZBB8. 



' J 



[The 'portions emhraxyedy by t 



3ft 



20" 



160* 

-i—i 1—1 — I I I I L— a 



170f 

J I 1 — I I i_J I I « I L 



MeOitkBank 



•Manama J. 
p.o: 



CD. ^ 







e 



<» 



Pcudfia N.W: sheet 781 






X 



iqC 



o: 



-ifi. 



2lOi 



Gt p 



o © 






.^ 



JET 



mS<^'i 




Q> 



/♦ 







O 



rf * e ." 



V.o 









I ■ ■ ■ 



© 



INDEX TO 
ADMIRALTY PUBLISHED CHARTS 

ALLUDED TO In'tHIS WORK 

Attar * iniicaJbta th/itcuplanoflJvt 
plxLeeisffiytnupoTvihe coast afvarfiwrcLeh 
ia ahjown. hy ^i» 3iaffram, to mnbr«c» iz. 
A number offcanst a place ■0*us.£tLSter 
Z^ 1386 shows ■BtaZa.separatoplan.is 
puifHah/eJL hearing that ntunhsn 
Astarani3La,wanh«r-daiSk UtuToa.S^*Si6 
indicates apian, of DturoaSTts puliluhed 
on, aheiet 516. Far drtaSs of soeJar, prices 
Ae.see^hjeAijnxral^ CataLogtie>. 

See also (reneral/ Chart X683 



/• 



® 



• 



. 9 






1S5 



Jtf 



9* 



_9' 



m 



IS40 






••• . 



• • 



^. 



.^SaUylf 



If. 



141 



isr 153* 152r 

^ ■ ■ ■ I L_l >■ L I 1 I I t—l 1 1 i- 



161" 

■ ■'■■■ 



150* 



^Senm^TuaisenJ. 



Maatpitiff 



s o C I ^ 



^^^SjS^j 



o*^ 






;^,ffrreB^*6t6 



(yff 

:» ^ Hualieine rPafi ine) 



*'*-/i^A 



> 1 L 



»i^^ 



8* 



Jtf 



/ 



*cr 






stf 






la^KonanU) gjf 

fStBundwI,! 



9" ,J®^ 



'K^^'^^L?. 



t — I — I — I — I — I — I — r I I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I II — I — I — I — I — r — I — I — I I -T r 
154* IBST 152* 151* 150r 



Y^^ PaciFicIf Vol. 3. (Eastern Groups) 



T — I — r 



tdtsJk Compaj^ 



i 



1 

• 



PACIFIC ISLANDS, VOL. III. 

(EASTERN GROUPS.) 




For later information respecting the lights which are 
described in this work, seamen should consult the Ad- 
Mralty List of Lights in South America, Western Coast 
of North America, Pacific islands, &c. These Light Lists 
are published early in the current year, corrected to the 
preceding 31st December 



— WW f I 



. emu luu- w.; and in north 
latitude, the islands near the equator in the vicinity of long. 160° W., 
together with the Sandwich group, and the chain of islands and reef» 
extending to the north-west of that group as far as loug. 170° E. 

The Faumotu or Low archipelago in the south-eastern part, is a mass of 
low coral islands to which there are only three exceptions (Henderson, 
Pitcairn, and the Gamhier islands). Navigation among these groups is 
dangerous on account of the uncertain set of the currents, and the still 
imperfectly charted reefs and islands. However, there is but little to be 
obtained in the way of trade from the natives, who are content to earn a 
scanty living on the cocoa-nuts which grow on the islands, and the fish which 
they catch in the lagoons, so that there is little inducement for vessels to 
visit these groups. 

The Society islands, however, which lie but a short distance to the west* 
n 16615. X 



[The portions amhrcLcedy hy ti 



'.?iJ^: 






-Pacifia XK ahaX 7S1 %-- 



g^E^/ 



•iyi./; 



.<¥ 'i* . .'¥ 



•^"•"" 



v^ 



^■'^.j^ 



,\y)\ 



=^■-"1^ 



IM" ȣ lE^ 



Yi^Fadficl' VbL 3- (Eastern, Groups) 






^ 



CHAPTER L 

General ebmaeks. — ^Winds. — Currents. — Outlying 

REEFS AND REPORTED DANGERS. — RaPA ISLAND. 

TuBUAi OR Austral islands. — Cook islands. 



Variation in 1885. 

Rapa island - - - 9 30 £. 

Tubuai islands - - - 9 E. 

Cook islands - - - 9 E. 



GENERAL REMARKS.— The portion of the Pacific ocean 
embraced in this work, indndes all the islands and reefs south of the 
equator, between the meridians of 100° W. and 160° W. ; and in north 
latitude, the islands near the equator in the vicinity of long. 160° W., 
together with the Sandwich group, and the chain of islands and reefs 
extending to the north-west of that group as far as long. 170° E. 

The Paumotu or Low archipelago in the south-east«rn part, is a mass of 
low coral islands to which there are only three exceptions (Henderson, 
Pitcairn, and the Gambier islands). Navigation among these groups is 
dangerous on account of the uncertain set of the currents, and the still 
imperfectly charted reefs and islands. However, there is but little to be 
obtained in the way of trade from the natives, who are content to earn a 
scanty living on the cocoa-nuts which grow on the islands, and the fish, which 
they catch in the lagoons, so that there is little inducement for vessels to 
visit these groups. 

The Society islands, however, which lie but a short distance to the west* 

Q I66I5. A 






PACIFIC ISLANDS, VOL. III. 

(EASTERN GROUPS.) 1 



2 GENERAL BEMABKS. [chap. i. 

ward, present a very different appearance. They are high, mountainous 
islands covered with luxurious vegetation to the summits, and wdl culti- 
vated in the plains and valleys, with numerous streams and cascades 
running down their sides into the sea. 

This group is in the possession of the French, who have their chief 
establishment at Fapiete in the island of Tahiti, a good harbour where 
supplies of all descriptions can be obtained and small repairs to machinery 
effected. 

The Marquesas islands which lie to the northward of the Pautnotu archi- 
pelago are also in the possession of the French. They are high well- 
wooded islands with several good anchorages and harbours, the best of 
which is Anna Maria or Tai-o-ha6 bay in Nukuhiva or Marchand island 
where the French establishment is situated. 

These islands are but little cultivated, although the soil is good and well 
adapted to the growth of cotton, &c. Supplies may be obtained at the 
principal ports, sufficient for the wants of vessels calling, and the natives 
are willing to trade. 

The scattered islands near the equator in the vicinity of the 160th meri- 
dian, are all low coral islands covered with a scanty vegetation and a few 
cocoa-nut trees. From a few of these islands, large quantities of guano 
have been exported, but the supply is now nearly exhausted ; otherwise 
they are of but little value, only producing a small number of cocoa* 
nuts, &c. 

The Sandwich islands, the most important group in the Pacific ocean, 
consist of eight high volcanic islands^ the southern of which is still in a 
state of activity. 

These islands afford several good anchorages, but the most important 
port is Honolulu in Oahu, which is the seat of the Hawaian Grovemment, 
the port of call for steamers running between America and China or 
Australia and the commercial centre of the group. There is a snug inner 
harbour here, formed by an opening in the reef, capable of admitting vessels 
drawing not more than 20 feet of water. Supplies of all kinds are abun- 
dant, and the islands are well cultivated in sugarcane, &c. which yields 
large quantities and produces a good trade. 

IXTINDS. — The winds that generally blow in the region which is 
Included in this volume, are the N.E. and S.E. trades; but some remarks 
as to their regularity and direction among the different groups is necessary, 
as they are by no means as constant as their counterparts in the Atlantic. 

Grenerally speaking, the S.E. trade may be described as inqluded in a 
belt some 28 degrees broad, which alternates to northward and southward 
according to the season, reaching as far as 8^ N. in July and August, but 
only to about 3° N. in January. However, this trade does not blow across 



CHAP. I.] WINDS. 8 

the whole breadth of the south Pacific with that steadiness which might 
have been expected, and the small low islands of the Paumotu archipelago 
appear to cause a great irregularity both in its force and direction. 

At Easter island, &x away to the eastward, the S.E. trade blows steadily 
from October to April, but in the winter months (April to October) when 
the trade has receded to the northward, westerly winds prevail and there is 
much rain. 

In the vicinity of Pitcairn island, at the south-east end of the Paumotu 
archipelago, there is no regular trade, but in summer the wind is generally 
between E.S.E. and North, and in winter between E.S.E. and S.W. 

At Bapa island, which is just outside the limits of the S.E. trade, the 
wind is generally from the eastward from October to April, with occasional 
westerly breezes, especially from December to February. From May to 
September the prevailing wind is j&om the westward, with heavy gusts, and 
there is much ra.in. 

As before mentioned, the trade wind among the Paumotu archipelago is 
very unsteady both in strength and direction, especially from November 
to March when heavy squalls from the westward and north-westward are 
often experienced. 

Among the Society islands the S.E. trade blows steadily from April to 
December, but during the remainder of the year westerly winds are 
A-equently experienced. 

Even in the vicinity of the Marquesas group, which is situated in the 
latitude of the heart of the trade, the S.E. wind is by no means as constant 
as in the Atlantic ocean, though the wind is nearly always to the eastward, 
only occasionally getting to the westward of North, when it may be expected 
to turn to a gale. From April to October the wind is generally S.E.9 
whereas from October to April it is usually from EJN'.E. 

Near the equator in the vicinity of Christmas and Fanning islands, the 
trade becomes an easterly wind which blows steadily during the greater 
part of the year. At Fanning island, from January to March, the wind 
becomes unc^tain as the S.E. trade recedes to the southward, and sometimes 
strong northerly winds are experienced with much rain. 

The N.E. trade in the north Pacific is a belt of wind some 20 degrees in 
breadth, which blows with tolerable regularity across the whole of the 
ocean. It alternates to northward and southward with the S.E. trade, but 
there is not such a broad belt of ealms between them as in the Atlantic 
ocean. 

The Sandwich islands in about 20^^ N. experience this trade during the 
greater part of the year, sometimes with the force of a gale ; but in the 
winter months it is not unfrequently interrupted by southerly an<l south- 
westerly gales which sometimes blow for several days in succession. 

A 2 



4 GKfETLAL SEMAJUCS. [gkap.il 



HURRICAVSS.— Little ia known of the detaSh oi roimtorj storms 
oeearring ftmoog the islands of tlie aontliem Fseific^ bat tliat tLej InTe 
been ezperieneed Ihsu time to time, there is no doabt, mnd it rfMosaziis 
for those nsrigating these regions to send in detailed accounts of sndi as 
are met with, for the beneiit of their brother seamen.* 

These hnrricanes, as far as is jet known, gen^allT occur betweeo 
December and March, but thej maj possiUj occur at other times of the 
jeatf as two horrieaoes (or at lea^ storms mnch resonbling them) are 
reported to hare passed orer the western groups oi the Panmotn archi- 
pelago in September 1877 and Febroarj 1878, bat we hare ao satisfactoij 
aecoants of their true character. 

Among the Cook islands it is reported that thej occor aboat onee in 
seren jears, between the months of December and March ; there can be 
no donbt as to their rerolring character as thej osoailj commence at 
N.W* to North and end at S.E. 

A hurricane has been reported to have passed orer Caroline island in 
1878, but there is no mention as to the month ; and Penibjn island is 
supposed to be subject to these storms, as manj of the cocoa-nut trees are 
without heads. 

CUBBENTS. — The general tendency of the great mass of water in 
the tropical regions of the Pacific is to the westward, and forms what is 
usually known as the equatorial current ; but between the two sets in north 
and south latitude, there is a narrow belt running to the eastward, call^ 
the Equatorial Counter current which is somewhat analogous to the belt of 
calms and variables between the N.E. and S.E. trade winds. 

However, it must not be supposed that this westerly tendency is in- 
variable, for it will be found at times to run in an exactly opposite direction 
from no apparent cause, and to be diverted from its course by the islands 
Olid reefs which bar its progress, or by the winds, which have a great effect 
on the surface water. 

In the south Pacific this westerly current will generally be met with 
from about the parallel of 26® S. as far as the equator or even 4° N.; but 
the limits are liable to change and probably move north and south with the 
trade winds. 

Neor Pitcaim island the current generally runs to the westward with a 
velocity of about 12 miles a day ; but among the Paumotu archipelago the 
currents aro very irregular. During settled weather and a steady trade the 
sot is usually to the westward from 5 to 25 miles a day ; but when the 
wind is westerly, which is frequent between October and March, the 



* For farther information on this subject, see Admiralty pamphlet, ''Bemarkson 
NToIring storms." 



CHAP. 1.] HURBICANES. — CUEBENTS, 5 

current is reversed and runs to the eastward from one to 2 knots an hour. 
The uncertainty on these occasions, as to the direction in which the current 
inaj be running, renders navigation among this mass of islands very 
dangerous. 

Among the Cook and Society islands, the westerly set is fairly regular, 
and runs at a rate of from 12 to 20 miles a day ; but strong winds from 
the opposite direction are liable to influence the rate, and at times, reverse 
the current. 

On nearing the equator, the current will be found to increase in strength, 
and amongst the Marquesas has a velocity of from a half to 2]^ knots per 
hour ; but even here when strong westerly winds have been blowing, the 
surface water has been observed to run to the eastward in the channels 
between the islands. 

Near Starbuck and Maiden islands, in lat. 6° S., this current attains a 
velocity of from 32 to 56 miles a day to the westward, and much care is 
requisite in approaching these islands, to keep well to the eastward, as 
with a light trade there is great difficulty in beating back against the 
current. 

Near Christmas island in lat. 2° N. the current is generally strong to W. 
and N.W. as much as 37 miles a day ; but good observations tend to show 
4hat the counter current is sometimes experienced as far south as the 
equator, and caution is therefore necessary in obtaining good astronomical 
observations for the position of the ship. 

The equatorial counter current may usually be expected between the 
parallels of 4° and 9° N., where there is a strong set to the eastward of 
from 12 to 60 miles a day. The line between the easterly and westerly 
currents is very distinctly marked at times, but the limits of the east- 
going stream have been found to extend as far south as the equator. 

In 1875, H.M.S. Challenger^ when on the passage from Honolulu to 
Tahiti, experienced very strong currents. 

The northern equatorial current extended to 1 1° N. ; its general direction 
being S. 60° W., 18 miles per day, and its temperature varying from 77° 
to 79**. From 11° N. to 6° N. the equatorial counter current was found 
running to the eastward at an average rate of 30 miles per day, but its 
force in 7° N. was 50 miles a day, and its temperature varied from 80^ 
to 82**. 

From 5° N. to 5° S. the southerly equatorial current was running to the 
westward at an average rate of 43 miles a day, but in 1° N. its velocity 
was no less than 70 miles per day. Its temperature varied from 79° to 77°, 
being 77^ at its axis of greatest rapidity. This extraordinary rate was 
also experienced by the French corvette JOEurydice in the month of 
August 1857, in 3° 50' N. The Challenger also found this current setting 



6 OUTLYING REEFS AND EEPORTED DANGERS, [chap. i. 

to the westward, jast north of the Admiralty islands in March 1875, with 
an average rate of 30 miles per day, but its temperature then was from 
83° to 84*^. From 5° S. to Tahiti the currents were to the southward 
about 12 miles per day. 

In the north Pacific the equatorial current is much narrower than in 
the southern Pacific, and will not usually be met with to the northward 
of 20° N. Between the equatorial counter current and the Sandwich 
islands, the set is from 12 to 40 miles a day to the westward. 

Among the Sandwich islands the current is generally running to the 
westward at a rate of from one to 1^ knots per hour, but it varies a good 
deal, and runs in the opposite direction at times without any apparent cause. 

A more detailed description of the several groups of islands, is given 
under their respective headings. 



OUTLYING REEFS AND REPORTED DANGERS.* 

MABIA THERESA BEEF, which was reported in 1843 by 
Captain Tabor of the Maria Theresa to be in lat. 37° O' S., long. 161° 0' W., 
is placed by recent investigation in lat. 37° 0' S., long. 151° 13' W. 

BEPOBTED BBEAKEBS.— Mr. Ringe, commanding the 
Grerman barque Jupiter on the voyage between Newcastle (New South 
Wales) and Tahiti, reported having passed breakers during the night of 
December 3rd, 1878, in latitude 36° 37' S., long. 150^ 15' W. The 
breakers were observed in two places, each of which had a diameter of 
about 30 yards, and appeared to be one quarter of a mile apart.t 

L'OBNE BANK.— On September 1 Itb, 1874, the French transport 
r Ome passed over a bank upon which a depth of 16 fathoms, rock and 
sand, was found ; 3 miles east of this spot there were 52 fathoms, rock, 
and at a distance of 5 or 6 miles east, no bottom was obtained at 98 fethoms. 
The approximate position of the depth of 16 fathoms, deduced from good 
observations, is in lat. 27° 42' S., long. 157° 44' W. 

Captain M. Chambeyron, commanding the French vessel of war le 
Curieux^ 1877, however, reported a depth of 5 fathoms as the least water on 
rOme bank.t 

HATMET BOCKS were reported by the cutter Will Watch^ 
J. E. Haymet master and owner, when on her passage between Auckland 



* See Admiralty charts :— Pacific Ocean, General, No. 2683. Pacific Ocean, S.E. 
sheet, No. 783. South Pacific Ocean, Western Sheet, No. 788. 

t From Nachrichten fftr Seeftihrer, Berlin, No. 1 of 1880 $ alsg. No. 41 of 1879, •« 
:|; Paris Annonce Hydrographiqne, No. 9 of 1877. 



CHAP. I.] BAPA ISLAND. 7 

and Rarotonga ; the cutter struck on the northern of two tocks, damaging 
her false keeL* 

The rocks are said to extend over a space of about a quarter of a mile, 
to have been distinctly seen, and with apparentlj 7 or 8 feet water on them. 
Mr. Haymet gives their position as in lat. 27° 11' S., long. 160^ 13' W. 

In Dei;ember 1882 Lloyd's agent at Rarotonga reported that the Haymet 
rocks were supposed to exist about 150 miles S.S.W. of Karotonga; and 
are therefore right in the track of vessels bound from Auckland to that 
island, who always give this supposed position a wide berth. 

NEILSON REEF.— On January 19th, 1827, the ship Sir George 
Osborne passed between two portions of this reef, on which the sea broke 
in places, being nearly level with the water. White coral was seen under 
the ship in from 4 to 6 fathoms, and the reef extended a considerable 
distance, curving to the south-eastward in the form of a crescent as far as 
could be seen from the masthead. In 1831 the ship Lancaster struck on 
this reef, the least depth found being 12 feet. 

The position given by the Sir George Osborne is lat. 27° (K S., 
long. 146° 17' W. 

BASS ISLANDS. — ^This group, consisting of four smaU islands, 
lying about 43 miles K by S. of Rapa island, has recently been passed by 
the French vessels of war Lamothe-Piguet, and U Entrecasteaux, The 
south-east rock, 346 feet above the sea, and the highest of the group, is 
considered to be in lat. 27** 6^' 30'' S.,long. 143° 28' W. 



EAPA ISLAND.t 

This island, which was formally placed under the French protectorate in 
March 1881, was discovered by Vancouver in 1791. It is of very irregular 
form, about 18 miles in circuit, with several deep indentations in the coast ; 
the largest of these, named Ahurei bay, is situated on the east side of the 
island. 

The coasts of Rapa island are bold, with no off-lying dangers beyond 
half a mile. 

The appearance of the island is remarkable, its high craggy mountains 
forming in several places most remarkable pinnacles, with nearly perpen- 
dicular cliffs from their summits to the sea. The highest point of the island, 
mount Perahu, is 2,172 feet above the sea, and maybe seen from a distance 
of 6^ miles. 



* From information receiyed by Commander Mayne, H.M.S. Eclipse, 1S63. 
t See Admiralty plan of Bapa island on sheet, No. 29. 



8 BAPA ISLAl^D. [chap. i. 

The mountains are generally bare or oovered with stunted trees on the 
cascem side of the island ; the west side on the contrary is covered with a 
rich vegetation, and most noticeably some forests of large tree ferns. 

All the summits of the mountains which are not absolutely inaccessible, 
and all the principal passes which give access from one valley to another 
are commanded by well constructed forts of hard stones, and generally built 
in terraces commanded by a tower. 

These constructions are very ancient; the natives say that the island 
formerly contained a numerous population, divided into tribes usually at 
war with ^ne another ; this explains the existence of the forts, built to 
protect each valley against the incursions of neighbouring tribes. 

The inhabitants are in appearance a fine well made race, somewhat 
resembling the natives of New Zealand, and in 1880 numbered about 150. 

From the report of the French officers who visited the island in 1867, 
it appears to be a sterile spot, with but few resources ; the climate does 
not admit of the growth of tropical fruits, and the inhabitants can scarcely 
gain subsistence from the soil. 

A French war-vessel visits Rapa and other islands every 3 months, 
taking stores and provisions fiom Tahiti for the officials, 

Aliuroi harbour is a snug anchorage, open to the eastward, about 
half a mile wide and 2^ miles deep, the land rising on three sides like the 
wall of an amphitheatre, with protection on the east side by reefs and 
islets ; having fresh air from the sea is also an advantage. On the isouth 
side is a large village, the residence of the king.* 

The landing place at the village of Ahurei is formed by a stone pier, 
alongside which there is only one foot of water at low tide. 

The bottom of the bay, to the north-west of Kutupui point is blocked 
with coral reefs. A conical island of some height, named Tapui lies at the 
head about one cable from the beach. 

In 1868, the Panama Company had two coal hulks moored here, and 
this island will be used by their steamers as a stopping place and coal 
dep6t on the route from Panama to New Zealand. The return voyage lies 
further to the southward, in order to benefit by the westerly breezes.f 

Between Kutupui and Nukutere points on the north shore, lies the village 
of Area at the foot of some small clifis, where the English company have 
established their storehouses. 

The exit to the harbour is inconvenient for sailing vessels on account of . 
the prevalence of easterly winds. 



* See plan of Aburet harbour on Admiralty chart No. 39. 
t Nautical Magasinc, toI. zxxriii. of 1869. 



CHAP. I.] AHUBEI HARBOUR. 9 

The water is deep, the bottom coral, covered with a thin layer of mud. 
The squalls from the mountains and high land are sometimes verj violent ; 
there is, however, but little danger of dragging, the anchorage being well 
protected by reefs at the entrance. 

At 4 cables E. by S. of Nukutere point lies Tauna island, a small sand 
island nearly awash and without any vegetation, in lat. 27° 36' S., long. 
144° 17' W. 

Buoy and beacons. — The entrance channel through the reefs 
is marked by beacons and a buoy. Two white triangular beacons on 
Tekaungarahu point, in line on a N.W. by W. bearing lead in between 
the reefs, and an iron tripod with a ball on the summit (situated on the 
i*eef opposite mount Tanga) in line with the extremity of Kutupui point, 
indicates the turning point into the harbour. A red buoy marks the 
extremity of the shore reef eastward of Maomao point. 

Directions. — On approaching Ahurei bay, steer for Bapa Iti until 
the two beacons on Tekaungarahu point are in line on a N.W. by W. 
bearing, when a course, must be steered for them until past the red buoy 
markiog the reef off Maomao point, when the beacon on the reef opposite 
mount Tanga in line with Kutupui point marks the turning point. The 
red buoy must be left on the port hand and the vessel kept in mid-channel 
until past the beacon, when steer for anchorage as convenient. 

It is always advisable to employ a pilot.* 

Pilots. — Two native pilots board vessels a little outside Rapa Iti island. 
It is advisable to accept their services, the channels being narrow, the 
currents irregular, and squalls frequent.f 

On Saturdays, all the boats of Ahurei go fishing round the island ; so 
that on that day vessels may expect to be detained some time for the pilot, 
should the boats be in the southern or western bays of the island. Firing 
guns at long intervals will bring them on board.* 

Outer Anchorages. — Nearly all the bays which surround the 
island afford an anchorage and temporary shelter for small craft. These 
bays are filled with shoals, and vessels should not enter them without the 
assistance of the natives. These bays are Anatauri, Anataari, Hiri, 
Anarua, Piriati, Tubuai, Akamanue, Angairao, and Atanui. 

Supplies. — No bread fruit or cocoa nuts can be obtained. Taro and 
pigs appear to be the only food of the natives. 

Taro, bananas, cabbages, water melons, and maize grow well ; potatoes 
as yet but indifferently. Coal of very inferior quality has been found in 
the interior ; the natives sometimes use it for cooking, but it is useless for 
steam purposes. 

* Paris Notice Hydrographique, No. 19 of 1884. 

t Lieateiiant D. Av Wright, H.M.S. Kingfisher, 1883. 



\ 



10 TUBUAI OB AU8TEAL ISLANDS. [chap. i. 

The watering place is on the north side of the anchorage, at the foot of 
a small cascade a little to the eastward of Kutupui point. 

Tides. — It is high water full and change at 12 h. 15 m. Bise of tide 
2 feet 6 inches. 

Winds and Weather. — The prevailing winds during eight 
months of the year, from October to April inclusive, are from the east- 
ward, but about once in three weeks during December, January, and 
February, westerly winds occur for a short period. 

From May to the middle of September westerly winds prevail, blowing 
in heavy gusts, with rain, down the valleys of Ahurei bay, owing to the 
harbour being open to the eastward and landlocked in other directions. 

From native report hurricanea are sometimes experienced on this island, 
destructive to houses, and rooting up the cocoanut trees. There are no 
cocoanut trees at present on the island. 

A peculiarity of this island is the absence of surf and swell ; a boat can 
land without risk at any part where not too precipitous. 



TUBUAI OB AUSTBAL ISLANDS.* 

This is a scattered group, consisting of five islands surrounded by 
fringing coral reefs which are generally steep to ; lying between the 
parallels of 21** 40' S. and 24° 0' S., and the meridians of 147*" 4(y W. 
and 154° 45' W. 

The islands of Vavitao and Tubuai are under French protection, the 
remainder are independent. 

WINDS.— These islands lie near the limit of the S.E. trades; E.S.E. 
winds are the most frequent and steady during the year. North and N.W. 
winds generally occur in spring, and are followed by winds from the south- 
west which are often sudden and violent, veering to south and S.E. 

With light N.W. winds, if clouds are observed rising from the south- 
ward, a sudden shift of wind to the southward may be expected, which 
comes up sometimes in furious squally. These squalls are especially 
dangerous to vessels which are leaving Tahiti with the wind right astern 
from N.W., to gain the region of variable winds. 

Cyclones are felt among the Tubuai islands, where they blow with great 
violence, and follow the usual law in the southern hemisphere ; they are 
experienced during the summer months, especially in March. 



« See Admiralty charts :— Padfic Ooeao, Qflneml, No. 8689: Pacific Ocean, S.E. 
Bheet, No. 788. Paomota or Low archipelafo» No. 787^ 



CHAP. I.] WINDS. — ^VAVITAO. 11 

CLIMATES* — ^The climate is mild and temperate. The seasons are 
well marked, and with southerly winds the temperature is fresh in the 
winter. The heat in summer is never excessive. 

PRODUCTS. — ^The principal production of these islands is taro, 
the it)ot of an aquatic plant which is a substitute for the indigenous bread- 
fruit tree of the Society islands. The taro«root kneaded and slightly 
fermented is exported to the Paumotu archipelago under the name of tivo 
or popo'i. The manioc, arrow-root, cotton, tobacco, and sugar-cane grow 
well ; bananas, oranges, and yams may also be obtained. Many pigs, fowls, 
and turkeys are reared here, and also some goats which live in a wild 
state. 

VAVITAO or RAVAIVAI ISLAND, in lat.23'^ 55' S. 

and long. 147° 48' W., was discovered by Captain Broughton in 1791. 
It is about 10 miles long in an E.N.E. and W.S.W. direction, with con- 
spicuous, high, rugged summits. 

B66f.**The island is surrounded by a reef which extends from the 
land to a distance of nearly a mile, with numerous wooded islets on the 
southern and eastern parts of the reef; the eastern side of the reef extends 
seaward in a gradual slope ; off the south-east part, at 2^ miles from the 
land, are from 11 to 1 6 fathoms, and near the top of the reef from 8 to 
9 fathoms. On the western side of the island the reef is much steeper, 
and on the western part of it is an islet, which will be seen standing out 
from the mainland, on approaching from the north. About 2 miles east* 
ward of this latter islet was found the only ship passage through the reef 
to the anchorage. This passage is about a mile long, with depths of 5 to 
6^ fathoms, but it is encumbered ^vith several heads of coral having from 
a half to one fathom water upon them. Entering the passage a sharp 
look-out is necessary to avoid the shoal heads, and a sailing vessel should 
be under easy canvas. 

Le&ding mark. — The V-shaped notch of a double-summit hill on 
the western part of the island, kept open to the eastward of a conspicuous 
block of rock upon the shore, will lead to the anchorage. This is the 
native leading mark, and was used by the French vessel of war Bailleur, 

Anchorage. — ^The few ships which frequent the island, anchor at 
the entrance of the passage, but with winds northward of East a heavy sea 
rolls in, and with North or North-west winds it would be unsafe anchorage. 
Eastward of the passage^ and nearer the reef than the land, the anchorage 
appeared to be better at all times, but there would be danger to a large 
ship attempting to beat up. 

At the western extremity of the island is a large deep bay, affording 
excellent anchorage in all winds, which can only be reached by steam- 



12 TUBUAI Oil AUSTfiAL ISLANDS. [chap. r. 

vessels, in consequence of two large coral patches lying between tbe reef 

and the island. 

No water is to be obtained at Vaviiao, there being only a few springs 

uged by the natives. 

TUBUAI ISLAND which lies W. by N. 95 miles from Vavitao, 
in lat. 23^ 22' S., and long. 149° 35' W., is high, and lies E.N.E. and 
W.S.W. • from the northward it shows as two islands, which on a nearer 
approach are seen to be joined by low land. 

•ptQQf^ Tubuai, like Vavitao, is surrounded by a r6ef at a distance of 

about a mile from the shore. On the north-east part of the reef are 
several islets, and on the north-west part is a large opening which forms 
the passage leading inside the reefs. 

AnclloraKe. The notch between two elevated peaks on the western 

part of the island, kept bearing South, leads to the anchorage, which is at 
the entrance of the passage leading inside the reefs. In bad weather this 
anchorage is safe only with winds from South to E.N.E. The holding 
ground is bad, the bottom being coral covered with a thin layer of mud. 
There is sufficient depth inside between the reef and the island for large 
vessels but the passage is so blocked with coral as to be only available 
for small vessels.* 

A little eastward of the passage is a village where the king of the island 

resides. 

BURUTU or OHETEROA ISLAND, situated 105 miles 
W.N.W. of Tubuai, in lat. 22° 30' S., long. 151° 22' W., was discovered 
by Cook in 1769 during his first voyage. 

This island is between 6 and 7 miles long north and south, 3 miles wide 
at the northern part, and volcanic in appearance ; the mountains attaining 
a hei^'ht of 1,300 feet, the lower parts of which are wooded. 

The reef which surrounds the island is neai-ly contiguous to the shore. 
A small port fit only for small craft, is said to be on the north-east part of 

the island. 

Approaching the island from the northward, the most conspicuous 

obiects are the church (a white building without a tower) and some white 
bouses among which is the two-storied house of the king, in front of 
which is a high flag-staff. 

The inhabitants, numbering 700 (including 5 Europeans), are governed 
by king Team Arii. The natives are stated to be good natured and 
intelligent, and having some knowledge of shipbuilduig and navigation.! 

* See Admiralty plan of Tubuai isUmd anchorage, No. 2868. 
•f Berlin Annalen der Hydrographie, Heft 9 of 1883. 



CHAP. I] COOK ISLANDS. 13 

Anchorage. — ^Near the middle of the western side of the island is a bay 
2 miles deep, which is safe and convenient for anchorage ; the bottom is 
first seen at about 5 cables from the surrounding reef. With winds from 
the eastward vessels can easily make this bay. 

BIMITABA ISLAND, lying 77 miles W. by S. ^ S. of Rurutu 
island in lat. 22° 45' S., long. 1 52° 55' W., is a small island about 2 or 3 miles 
in diameter and rising to a height of 315 feet in the centre. A coral 
reef closely surrounds the shore, through which there is no opening, and 
the island can only be approached in favourable weather, when landing 
may be efiected opposite the villages on the east and west sides. 

The natives export a small quantity of cocoa-nut oil and cotton, rear 
pigs and fowls, and cultivate vegetables and fruit. 

HULL ISLAND.— This, the westernmost of the Tubuai islands, 
is a group of four small islands situated on a coral reef of triangular form, 
with its longest side N.W. and S.E. along which are three islands in a 
distance of about 3 miles, the fourth island lying at the apex of the triangle 
2 miles N.E. of the centre one. The highest of the islands is 66 feet in 
height. 

The reef surrounding the islands appeared to have no opening, and within 
the reef the water is shallow, the bottom being distinctly seen from 
outside. The north-west point of the group is in lat. 21° 49' S., 
long. 154** 43' W. 

Landing is. generally impracticable on account of the surf. 

COOK ISLANDS.t 

This group, which lies scattered over a considerable space, about 
180 miles W. by N. of the Tubuai islands, was thus named by Admiral 
Krusenstern. There are nine or ten separate islands under independent 
chiefs, the greater number of which were discovered by Cook. 

Cook islands seldom suffer from the effects of epidemics, and are 
generally healthy. The natives of all this group are much darker than the 
Tahitians, many of the islanders have a Mongolian type of face. The 
people of Aitutaki speak the same language as those of Barotonga. Their 
houses are built of coral, whitewashed, with thatched roofs, and present a 
very picturesque appearance from the sea. 

WINDS. — This group of islands being so near the limit of the trade 
winds, steady south-easterly breezes must not be expected ; but they are most 



* Paris, Annopce Hydrographique, No. 18 of 1885. 

f See Admiralty charts : — Pacific ocean general. No. 2683 ; Pacific Ocean, S.E. 
aheet, No. 783, 



14 COOK ISLANDS. [chap.i. 

fieqaent between May and October, both included ; during the remainder 
of the year, S.W. and westerly winds, which often blow as gales for several 
days in succession, are frequent, and cause a heavy surf on the western or 
usually lee sides of the islands. 

Hurricanes occur about once every seven years, but these storms are 
very local, the worst months are from December to March inclusive. 
Commencing at N.W. to North, ending at S.E., they do immense damage. 

CURIUSiNTS.— In the vicinity of this group the cur-rent will 
generally be found setting to the westward, at the rate of about half a mile 
an hour, but influenced in rate by the force of the wind. 



M ANGAIA, the southernmost island of the group, is of coral forma- 
tion, but otherwise differs from most of the South Sea islands. It is about 
650 feet high, and at a distance appears quite flat ; there is a fringing reef 
all round about 2 cables from the shore and about 2 feet above high-water 
mark, but with no passage for boats. Boats anchor outside the reef, on a 
ledge, and canoes come off for passengers, <&c. ; the natives then look out 
for the rise of the swell and land the canoes on the reef, jump out quickly, 
and drag the canoe across the reef to land, before the receding sea can 
sweep it back into deep water. It is not always safe to attempt a landing, 
few accidents however occur. 

Ships can approach the edge of the reef to within a cable, as there are 
no outlying dangers. 

In 1880, the government of the island was diyided between two kings ; 
the population number about 2,000, of whom half live near the mission 
station of Oneroa, on the west side, where there is a landing place ; the 
remainder being distributed between two other villages, each of which has 
its church and school. Schooners visit the island about every ten days^ 
chiefly from New Zealand, and export coffee, cotton, copra, and tobacco. 
The trading is done in a market place set apart for the purpose, but no 
foreignei* is allowed to settle on the island.* 

RAROTONGA.— This island lying about 100 miles W. by N. of 
Mangaia, is 7 miles in length, 4 miles wide, and 2,920 feet in height, 
and is surrounded by the usual barrier reef. In appearance it somewhat 
resembles Tahiti, with the mountains rising up into pinnacles and fantastic 
peaks, and covered with vegetation. 

The village of Avarua on the north-west side is easily distinguished from 
seaward ; the anchorage off it in 12 fathoms black sandy bottom, 6 or 6 



Navigating Lieateniint 6. D. Lee, H^LS. Turquoisef 1880. 



CHAP. I.] MANGAIA. — ^BABOTONGA. 15 

cables from the shore, suitable for vessels of about 100 tons, is sheltered from 
southerly winds, but dangerous with winds from the northward. Small 
trading schooners moor 2 cables from the beach in about 5 fathoms. 

There is anchorage to the eastward of Avarua^ off the north side of the 
island in 15 fathoms about 3 cables from the beach, with the two highest 
peaks in line S. | £. ; it is protected from south-easterly winds bj the 
N.E. point and the reef off it, but should the wind shift to the northward 
a swell sets in and the anchorage would not be safe except for a steam- 
vessel with steam ready.* 

Large vessels standing off and on should be careful not to get too close 
inshore, especially on the west side of the settlement, as there is a con- 
siderable set on-shore, and several ships have been wrecked, there being 
deep water, and no anchorage close to the edge of the barrier reef. 

Landing is effected by passing through a gap in the reef, nearly opposite 
the Queen's house. 

About half a mile to the westward of the Queen's house, there is an 
entrance to. a harbour capable of accommodating eight vessels of about 50 
tons. The southernmost and highest peak S.E. ^ S., on which bearing it 
appears notched at the top, leads to the entrance. ' There are also breaks 
in the reefs opposite the mouths of the principal streams. 

South Sea island cotton is grown, about 250 acres of land being under 
cultivation in that plant. A ginning machine is- erected near the settle- 
ment, where the cotton from the Hervey group is sent previous to its being 
shipped off either to New Zealand or Tahiti, Coffee of a good quality is 
also grown, and forms one of the chief exports. 

The island is in fortnightly communication with Auckland, and tele- 
grams have been received from London in 12 days.! 

A queen is the sovereign, and the form of government is the same as at 
Mangaia. The native population in 1884 was 3,000. In 1883 ther^ irere 
about 70 white people on the island, including some Chinese. 

The Rev. Mr. Chalmers (L.M.S.) has an institution at Avarua for the 
education of native missionaries, many of whom have been sent to the 
outlying stations at Humphrey (Monihiki), Reirson (Rokohanga), and 
Danger (Puka-Puka) islands, lying to the northward of this group. 

Supplies. — ^Fresh beef, yams, &c. can be obtained at moderate prices, 
also fowls and turkeys. 

Water may he obtained from a stream flowing into Avarua bay. 

MAUEI ISLAND, the easternmost of the group is low and 
wooded, about two miles in diameter and nearly circular, the tops of the 



* Navigating Lieutenant J. R. H. MacFarlane, H.M.S. Constance, 1884. 
t Captain F. P. Doughty, H.M.S. Constance, 1884. 



16 COOK ISLANDS. [chap.i. 

trees being estimated at 120 feet above the sea, which render it visible from 
the masthead from a distance of about 17 miles. 

Mauki island is reported to have no anchorage, but canoes come off in 
fine weather to communicate with passing ships. The reef does not 
appear to extend beyond a mile from the shore ; the west side is clear of 
dangers and may be approached to within 2 or 3 cables. The landing 
place is on the barrier reef on the west side, close to a flagstaff and 
immediately below a house almost hidden by the trees. 

The large clump on the southern part is in lat 20° 7' S., long. 157° 22' W. 

The island is governed by three kings or chiefs. The natives are a fine 
race, pleasant in face and merry in disposition ; in 1884 they numbered 
about 400. The island produces copra and cotton for export, for which a 
schooner from Auckland calls at regular intervals. 

The village is more than a mile from the landing place, and the church 
is a fine specimen of native work.* 

MITI£R0 island, which Ues about 22 miles N.W. by W. of 
Mauki island, is small and eoverod with verdure ; near the centre is a 
clump of trees the tops of which are 92 feet above the sea, visible from the 
masthead from a distance of about 16 miles. 

It is sun*ounded by a barrier reef, outside of which there are apparently 
no dangers ; and there is no anchorage. On the west side there is a hut 
and flagstaff among the cocoa-nut trees which marks the landing place 
through the reef, but the surf is too heavy to admit of ships boats-using it. 

In 1884, the population numbered 276.* 

The white tomb (a conspicuous object on the west coast of the island) is 
in lat. 19° 49' S., long. 157° 43' W. 

ATIU or VATIU ISLAND, discovered by Cook in 1777, is 
about 20 miles in circumference ; the highest point which is 394 feet above 
the sea is in lat. 19° 59^ S., long. 158° 6' W., and lies about 22 miles west 
of Mauki. 

The formation of this island much resembles Mangaia, and a reef 
closely fringes the shore. The northern side presents a bold rocky cliff 
shore about 30 feet high, intersected by small sand bays between the rocky 
heads. On the cliff above these bays some roads may be seen cut through 
the jungle into the interior. There is a landing place for canoes on the 
west side, which is marked by a flag-staff ; and a viUage and church show 
conspicuously on the top of the ridge, about a mile and a half from the 
landing place. 

A considerable number of vessels call here, and it is stated that temporary 
anchorage for small craft may be obtained on a small patch, in 16 fathoms, 
on the north side of the island. 



• Captain F. P. Donght^, H.M.S. Constance, 1884. 



CHAP. I.] ATIU, — ^TAKUTEA. — AtTUTAKI. 17 

The population in 1881 numbered about 1,400, governed by tliree kings 
t)r chiefs. 

TAKTJTEA or FENTJA ITI, is a small uninhabited island 
a|)out 3 miles in circumference, with a white coral sand beach protected by 
a fringing reef, lying about 1 1 miles N.W. of Atiu. 

This island is well wooded with cocoa-nut palms and other trees, the tops 
of which are about 50 feet high, and render it visible as far as the landing 
place at Atiu. 

Heavy breakers extend some distance from the east point. There is no 
anchorage, and the only place where landing appeared practicable was on 
the N.W. side where there is a barrier reef close to a few ruined huts.* 

The centre is in lat. 19° 49' S., long. 158° 16' W. 

HERVEY ISLANDS, situated about 45 miles N.W. by W. of 
Takutea, are two small low islands named Manual and Auotu, lying 5 or 6 
miles north-east and south-west of each other, and surrounded by a coral 
reef into which there is no passage. 

, These islands are well wooded, the tops of the trees being about 60 feet 
above the sea. The settlement is on the north-west side of Manual, the 
larger island, where there is landing through a small and shallow passage 
in the barrier reef. 

In 1884, there were 23 inhabitants left in charge of the islands by the 
king of Aitutaki who claims them.* 

AITUTAEI, the north-western island of the group, lying about 55 
miles W. by N. of the Hervey islands, was discovered in 1798 by Captain 
Bligh, of the Bounty, a few days before the mutiny; it is about 14 miles 
long in a north-east and south-west direction, and 360 feet high, sur- 
rounded by a barrier reef, through which there is only a boat passage 
situated opposite the mission station at Arutunga on the west side of 
the island. Anchorage for small craft is reported to be obtained outside 
the reef. 

The northern end of this island stands out boldly and shows well, some- 
what in the shape of a quoin on approaching from the eastward. 

The island is well wooded with the exception of a smooth conical mound 
on the north side, which slopes gradually to the southward. 

The barrier reef extends to the south-westward for 7 or 8 miles, and on 
the outer edge eight islands were counted, covered with trees, and from 20 
to 60 feet high, also several sand cays upon which the sea break's heavily. 

A small wooded island 20 feet high, with a reef extending one mile west 
of it, forms the western elbow of the barrier reef. 



^ Captain F. P. Doughty, H.M.S. Constance, 1884. 
16615. 



r 



18 COOK ISLANDS. [chap. r. 

The missionary establishment at Anitunga consists of two white build- 
ings, the church and school-house. The passage through the reef opposite 
them is somewhat difficult to distinguish, being narrow, tortuous, and full 
of eddies, but maj be found by bringing the mission house to bear S.E. ^ S. 
when it will appear open. 

The climate is said to be healthy, cotton and coffee are cultivated, and 
cocoa-nut oil is exported. 

Pigs, fowls, fruit, &c. may be obtained at moderate prices, and there 
are a few cattle of a small but g6od looking breed on the island. Water is 
difficult to be procured. 

The government consists of three chiefs and a number of sub-chiefs. 
The population in 1883 was 2,000 ; the births are far in excess of the 
deaths. The inhabitants are very hospitable and kind. 

The mound on the north side of the island was determined by sea obser- 
vations from H.M.S. Alert to be in lat. 18*^ 57^ S., long. 159° 49' W. 



^ 



19 



CHAPTER II. 

SOCIETY ISLANDS. 

Variation in 1885. 
Tahiti - - - 8° 5' E. 



This important group of islands consists of the celebrated island of 
Tahiti and several smaller islands. There appears to be but little doubt 
that Tahiti was first seen by Quiros in 1606, but like many other Spanish 
discoveries was unknown or unnoticed by the rest of the world, so that 
when the Dolphin^ Captain Wallis (sent by G-eorge III. to make discoveries 
in the South Seas), reached it on June 19th, 1767, it was supposed to be a 
new discovery, and named Bang George Island.* 

Captain Wallis sailed along the eastern side and anchored off the north- 
east shore. On the 23rd he discovered Matavai bay, and in passing it 
struck on the detached coral bank now called Dolphin bank, the ship was, 
however, got off safely, and anchored in the bay, when Lieutenant Furneaux 
landed and took formal possession in the name of George III. by hoisting a 
flag. On April 2nd, 1768, M. de Bougainville visited the island in the 
Boudeuse frigate and a store ship, leaving on the 14th, and naming it 
Nouyelle Cyth^re. 

The next visit was the most important, as it made the world more 
intimately acquainted with the group than the former ones did, besides 
filling important vacancies in science. 

It had been recommended that the rare occurrence of the transit of 
Venus across the sun's disc should be observed at points as far as possible 
apaii;; for this purpose Lieutenant James Cook, with an efficient staff of 
scientific observers were sent in the Endeavour to make the necessary 
observations. They arrived at Matavai bay on April 12th, 1769, and on 
the 3rd of June following, the transit was observed near the north point of 
the island, which thus became one of the best determined positions in the 
Western hemisphere and was named point Venus. Cook surveyed the 

♦ See Admiralty charts ; — Pacific ocean, general, No, 2683. Pacific ocean, S.Jfi, 
sheet. No. 783. Faumotu or Low Archipelago, No. 767. Tahiti and Murea, No. 1382. 
Harbours in Society islands/No. 526. 

B 2 



and heard of the Spaniards' vmt, lie also visited it in his last voja<^ in 
1777. 

The subsequent erenta which distinguished the isltind are generally 
known ; eleven years passed without any intercourse with Europe, when 
Lieutenant Bligh, in command of the Bounty, having been commissioned 
by George III. to transport breadfruit trees to the British West Indies, 
arrived at Matavai bay on October 26th, 1788. The subsequent meeting 
and return of the mutineers to Tahiti on June 6th, and a second time on 
September 22nd, 17S9, b well-known, 

The Pandora frigate, Captain Edwards, sent in search of the Bounty 
and her mutineers, arrived on March 23rd, 1791, and took awny those who 
had remained, fourteen in number. 

Vancouver also visited Tahiti in the same year, thus most of the great 
voyages to which we owe our knowledge of the Pacific have made this 
point. 

In 1842, on account of hostiUties ofiered to French missionaries, the 
frigate La Venus, under Admiral Da Petit Thenars, obliged Queen 
Pomare to sign a treaty allowing liberty to all French subjects, and in 1844 
Captain Bruat, in the presence of a powerful fleet, landed a strong force, 
hauled down Queen Fomare's standard, and hoisted the French flag, taking 
possession of the island in the name of Louis Philippe the king of 
France. 

The exports, consisting principally of cotton, copra, pearl shells, fungus 
(edible), oronges, cocoanuts, vanilla, and lime juiee, amounted to 1 1H,000/. 
in 1883, and the imports to 175,000/. The number of vessels of all nations 
that entered the same year was 205, amounting to 20,911 tons, as against 
254 vessels of all nationalities with an aggregate tonn^e of 24,972 tons in 
the preceding year. 

The pilol^e charges, which are rather heavy, are as follows : — 

For merchant vessels per fraction of 10 tons : 

fr». ceut?. 

From 30 to 100 tons- - - - 4 

„ 101 „ 400 „ - - - - 3 50 

„ 401 „ 500 „ - - • - 3 00 

„ 501 „ 1,000 „ and upwards - - 1 50 



Frs. 


cents. 


- 250 





- 200 





- 150 





- 75 






CHAP. II.] CLIMATE. — ^WINDS. 21 

For men-of-war : 

Line of battle ship ... 

Frigate - - - 

Corvette 

Small craft - - - - 

The money is paid in to the Treasury, the pilots receiving a fixed 
salary. 

The government accounts are kept in francs and centimes; but the 
merchants find dollars more convenient, and the principal money in circu- 
lation is the Chih'an dollar. 

The islands of Maitea, Tahiti, Murea, Tetiaroa and Tapamanu are under 
French protection, the remainder are under independent chiefs. 

CLIMATES. — The climate of the Society islands is hot and damp at 
all times of the year ; but on account of the latitude being well to the 
southward, the diffei*ence of temperature between summer and winter is 
seusible, especially during the night. 

The maximum temperature by day rarely exceeds 94° (Fah.) during the 
hot season, in January, and seldom falls below 82° in June ; the average 
is about 86°. The minimum temperature at night falls but little below 81° 
in the hot season ; but in the cool season it often falls to 70° and some- 
times 63°. 

The climate is very healthy for Europeans who are not exposed to any 
of the sicknesses common in hot countries. Sunstroke is not more fre- 
quent than in Europe. 

WINDS. — ^By their latitude, the Society islands are situated within 
the limits of the S.E. trades, and at all times of the year the wind has a 
tendency to blow from the eastward, often remaining between east and 
S.E., or east and N.E. 

Various causes, however, disturb the regularity of the easterly winds ; 
one of the principal is the vicinity of the Paumotu archipelago, which 
interrupts the regularity of the trade wind ; but when the trade is strong 
and well established it blows across these low lagoon islands and continues 
its course to the Society islands; some violent squalls, peculiar to the 
Faumotus are the only evidence of the struggle. If, by any chance, the 
trade should be light to the eastward of the Faumotus, it is stopfied by 
these islands ; the calm which results tends to increase the temperature of 
the lagoons and the consequent upward movement of the air, and cold 
masses of air from southern regions naturally tend to fill up the vacuum. 

Thus, at Tahiti, after a day or two of calm, the breeze springs up from 
the S.W., carrying masses of cold air towards the Faumotus. This cold 
air penetrating into the hot and moist tropical regions, induces an abun- 
dant condensation, a rainy season, and squalls. 



22 SOCIETY ISLANDS. [chap. n. 

Daring May, Jane, Julj and August, the sun is well to the northward, 
and its action towards heating the water of the lagoons is so much the less 
powerful since the general temperature is at its minimum ; at the same time 
the 8.E. trade is at its full strength, blowing almost without intermption, 
and the Paumotus do not cause it to vary much from S.E. to E.N.E. When 
from the S.E. it is strong and squally, becoming lighter as it shifts to east 
or E.N.E., returning to the S.E. after an interval of calm. 

These periods last from one to two weeks, separated bj a day or two of 
calm ; and it is seldom that the wind blows from the westward during this 
season. In every case the winds from the westward are weak and of short 
duration. 

In proportion as the sun moves to the southward, its action upon the 
Paumotus increase, the trade loses it strength, veering to E.N.E. and 
sometimes N.E. Then, in the parts to the westward of the Paumotus, the 
shifting of the wind is more marked, the periods of the trade of shorter 
duration, calms more persistent, and winds from the westward more fre- 
quent and stronger ; and at last during the months of December, January, 
February, March, and April, the southern summer, the trade wind becomes 
very weak. The heat is greatest upon the Paumotus, and the evaporation 
of the lagoons attains its greatest intensity, so that during this season the 
Society islands are neaily always subject to variable winds ; and breezes, 
sometimes fresh from the westward, alternate with calms, storms, and 
returns of the trade. 

REVOLVING STORMS.— Between the months of December 
and March this part of the Pacific ocean is traversed by revolving storms, 
which sometimes attain, though rarely, the strength of the cyclones in 
the China sea and Indian ocean. 

These storms often pass over the islands to the westward of Tahiti, and 
blow with violence among the Cook islands. 

There is no instance of the centre of one of these storms passing over 
Tahiti ; it is probable that the high mountains of the island divert them ; 
but their passage is frequently proved among the Paumotu archipelago, or 
well to the southward between Tubuai and Tahiti. The cyclone of Sep- 
tember 1877, which ravaged the islands of Anaa and Kaukura is the most 
violent on record. 

To an observer at Tahiti the passing of one of these storms presents the 
following appearances : — Should the centre be passing to the northward, 
the wind begins from S.E. or east and shifts to the N.E. like the trade 
wind ; but the falling of the barometer, the appearance of the weather 
which is threatening and squally, foretell the nature of the coming storm. 
The wind freshens as it shifts to the north and N.W., and drops as it 
becomes more westerly and the storm recedes. The sea is very heavy 



OHAP.nJ BEVOLVING STORMS. — CURRENTS. 23 

upon the north shore of the island, and especially in the pass at Papiete. 
In this roadstead, the wind comes down the mountains in violent squalls, 
with intervals of calm accompanied by torrents of rain. 

Should the centre be passing to the southward, the wind commences at 
S.W., increasing in strength as it shifts to the westward, begins to drop 
at N.W., and dies away between N.W. and north. The sea is very 
heavy upon the south side of the island. 

These tempests, as they pass to the northward or southward of Tahiti, 
give place to thunderstorms and heavy rains all over the island, but 
especially at Papiete. From this is derived the name of the rainy season 
given to the months when they are most frequent. They are most com- 
mon in the summer, but occur with a greater or less violence all the 
year round. 

CURRENTS. — The current among the Society islands is not very 
regular ; but, on clearing the coast, one can generally count upon finding the 
current setting in the direction of the prevailing wind, and a varying rate 
which is as much as 10 or 15 knots a day, with a good breeze. Easterly 
winds being the most frequent, the general set of the current is to the 
westward. 

TIDES. — At Papiete, high water takes place every day between 
noon and 2 p.m. This curious phenomenon appears to be altogether 
peculiar to this part of the coast, and to be caused by a particular combina- 
tion of the tidal streams. 

Everywhere else among the Society islands, the tides are governed by 
the moon. 

The rise and fall is very small. 

PRODUCTS. — All the productions of tropical countries grow well 
in the soil of Tahiti and Murea, and with but little cultivation, produces 
cotton of good quality, cocoa-nuts from which copra is made, sugar, coffee 
and vanilla. The bread fruit and a species of banana are the staple food 
of the natives ; oranges and guava trees form regular forests ; the mango, 
recently imported, the banana, and all the fruits and vegetables of the 
tropics flourish in abundance; and for several years some European 
vegetables have been grown as well. 

Cattle are few in number ; pigs and poultry in great numbers ; sheep 
and goats are numerous. 

MAILS. — ^There is a monthly postal service between Tahiti and San 
Francisco, which is carried on by sailing schooners, fitted for carrying 
passengers. These vessels leave San Francisco on the first of every 
month, calling at the Marquesas, and arrive at Tahiti in from 25 to 35 



HAITEA or MEHETIA ISLAND, in lat. 17° 53' S.^ 

long. 148° 6' W., is tho ensternmost uf tlie Society group, circalar in term, 
l,5d7 feet higb, And about 7 miles in diameter. 

The north side is remarkably steep; on the south side the declivity is 
more gradual. On the eastern side cocoanut and other trees abound. 

Near the east end are two remarkable rocks, and a reef extends to the- 
eastward about 1^ miles. 

The only safe landing place is on the S.E. side opposite the native huts, at 
the end of a pathway leading to the village ; even here great eantion 
should be observed as there are numerous rocks, and it is belter to get the 
natives to point the spot out before attempting it.* 

Supplies. — ^ <gs, fowls, and fruit may be obtained. 

TAHITI. — This, the most important island of the group) is 33 miles 
in length in a north-vest and south-east direction, and is an elongated 
range of high land, which, being interrupted in one part, forms an isthmus 
aboat 1^ miles in width which connects the two peninsulas, tbe smaller 
of which is named Taiarapu. 

From a low margin of sea coast, the land rises to a very considerable 
height on both estremities of the island, where some highly fertile valleys 
intersect the ranges in different porta. 

The highest mountain, named Orohena, in the northern peninsula, is 
7321 feet in height, and several others vary from 3,000 to 6,000 feet, from 
which ridges diverge to all parts of the coast. An excellent road has been 
completed all round the island called Broom road. 

Tbe summits of this island are frequently enveloped in clouds, so that 
caution is necessary in making the land al night, and if coming from North 
or East, tbe light on point Venus should be first sighted before closing the 
coast. 

A coral reef encircles tlie island at a distance of from one lo two miles, 
and within it are several good baibours, the principal of which is Matavai 
bay on the north side of the island. 

• Comiuander J. Brown, K.N.. yacht Sunbeam, 1976. 



CHAP. II.] TAHITI. — WI^BB. — CUBBENTS. 25 

Winds. — ^AloDg the coasts of Tahiti^ the winds which prevail to sea- 
ward are modified bj.the high mountains of the island and the action of 
the land and sea breezes ; the prevailing winds being from E.S.E. to E.N.E. 

If the wind is from E.S.E. it divides on striking the Taiarapu penin- 
sula, the part which passes to the southward blows all along the S.W. 
coast of the peninsula and the south coast of Tahiti as far as Maraa 
pointy when it turns from the coast and blows towards the south end of 
Murea. 

The part which passes north of the peninsula blows along the land as 
far as point Venus, where it is an easterly wind ; there it leaves the coast 
and blows towards the north end of Murea. 

Between Maraa and Venus points there are generally calms and local 
breezes which extend for a short distance into the Murea channel. The 
dividing line between the winds to seaward and the calm is very clearly 
marked. 

Should the wind be from east or E.N.E. it strikes the N.E. coast of the 
peninsula, and the coast between Teahupu and Teputa becomes becalmed, 
while a breeze crosses the isthmus of Taravao and blows from the eastward 
along the south coast of Tahiti as far as Maraa point when it turns away 
from the coast and leaves a calm between Maraa and Faa points. 

In proportion as the wind veers to east and E.N.E. the line of demar- 
caticm between the breeze and calm which begins at point Venus, ap- 
proaches the land again and blows all along the coast as far as Fareute 
point, from whence it turns towards the point of the reef off Faa, leaving 
the roadstead at Papiete in calm. 

At Papiete, land and sea breezes usually prevail, the former commenc- 
ing about 8 p.m. and lasting all night until 7 a.m. ; the sea breeze 
generaUy sets in about 9 a.m. and blowing from N.W. dies away about 
5 p.m. 

There is much danger to sailing vessels using the pass at Papiete, 
because the wind may fail them suddenly, and the current, which is nearly 
always running out, sets them on the reef. The land breeze is more 
regular and steady than the sea breeze and can be taken advantage of for 
going out through the pass without danger. 

Currents. — Along the north coast of Tahiti the general set of the 
current is to the N.W., and on the south coast to the S.E. With westerly 
winds the current is often reversed. 

To the westward of Papiete and between the two islands, its general 
direction is south ; in fine weather the rate of the current is about one 
knot an hour, but in bad weather it sometimes attains as much as 3 knots. 

Point Venus, the northern point of Tahiti, has probably had more 
extensive series of observations made on it than any other place in the 



26 SOCIETY ISLANDS. [chaf.h. 

Pacific ; as has been previously stated, Cook observed the Transit of Venus 
here in 1769, the longitude deduced from his observations being 
149° 26^ 15" W. ; from observations made during his second voyage, it was 
found to be 149° 28' 2b'' W., nearly identical with what Captain Beechey 
made it in 1826. The French give the longitude as 149° 29' 0" W. 

It is a long low point extending to the northward for about a mile from 
the foot of the mountains, and forms a plain completely wooded and covered 
with huts, and intersected by a pretty river which rises from the Tuaum 
valley. 

A Boman Catholic church is situated at 2f cables S.S.E. of the light- 
house; its steeple shows above the trees and can be seen from all 
directions. 

A reef awash extends in an arc to the northward of the point, to about 
a third of a mile from the beach, but there are probably some shoals a 
short distance to seaward of the line of breakers. Upon the eastern 
portion of this reef is a small islet lying 3^ cables E.N.E. of the lighthouse. 

Along the shore there is a boat passage between the reef and the beach. 

LIGHT. — The lighthouse on point Venus is a square white tower 
72 feet high, and from it is shown a ^xed white light elevated 82 feet 
above the sea and visible from a distance of 15 miles. 

CodfSt. — To the westward of the lighthouse the coast forms a beautiful 
sandy beach, slightly curved and extending to the south-westward for 
about a mile. This beach is bordered by huts and terminates at the foot 
of a steep hill 236 feet in height called mount Tahara, which is covered 
with brushwood and cocoa-nut trees, and projects into the sea as a steep 
cliff. Beyond mount Tahara the coast sinks lower ; the level part is 
wooded and bordered by a sandy beach broken here and there by coral 
banks as far as the low point of Utuhaihai, situated rather more .than 2 
miles from point Venus. 

Matavai bay, situated between point Venus and Utuhaihai point, 
and enclosed to seaward by a series of banks, is completely exposed to the 
swell firom seaward which always sets in, and landing is often dangerous 
for boats. It affords good shelter with winds from S.W. through East to 
N.N.E., but is dangerous with winds from N. W. and West. Prom December 
to April it may be considered a safe anchorage, but during the remainder 
of the year, when westerly winds often occur, it should be avoided, as a 
heavy sea sets in ; and in all seasons vessels should be prepared to leave 
when the wind shifts to the northward of N.E. 

Banks. — Separated from the reef off point Venus by a channel about* 
three quarters of a cable wide, with a depth of 12 J fathoms, is Dolphin 
bank, on which H.M.S. Dolphin struck in 1 767 ; the least water on this 
bank is 13 feet, which lies aboxit 5 cables W.S.W. of the lighthouse. 



CHAP. II.] MATAVAI BAY. — ^PAPAWA HARBOUR. 27 

A channel about one cable wide separates Dolphin bank from the chain 
of reefs extending to the S.W. for about 1^ miles, called the Toa Tea 
reefs. There are several channels between these reefs, and the depth is 
very irregular ; on some of the coral heads are only 16 and 20 feet of 
water. 

Between the Toa Tea reefs and the shore a little to the westward of 
mount Tahara is the Mahoti reef, upon which are depths of 2 fathoms, 
having a small patch with a depth of only 5 feet on the west side. 

With a heavy swell from seaward there are breakers upon the Dolphin 
bank, Mahoti reef and some parts of the Toa Tea reefs. 

AncIlOrd/gO. — In Matavai bay anchorage may be obtained anywhere 
with depths of from 8 to 16 fathoms, sand ; the best is in 11 fathoms, 
with the church near poiut Venus bearing E. | N. 

DiroCtiOHS. — in making for the anchorage with easterly winds, a 
sailing vessel should pass close to the reef off point Venus, but keeping 
clear of the depth of 2 fathoms extending for a short distance to the 
westward of the breakers. These shoals will be cleared by steering 
S. ^ W. for the perpendicular cliflf which terminates the western extremity 
of mount Tahara. When the lighthouse comes in line with the north 
point of Motu Au, luff quickly to S.E. J S., and shortly after to S.E. | E. 
as soon as the point of breakers has been passed, and anchor when the 
church bears E. J N. 

This manoeuvre, which is easy when the wind is E.N.E., is more 
difficult with an east wind, because it is necessary to pass as close as 
possible to the reef off point Venus, and at the time for luffing to enter 
the channel, to expect a current setting along the reef towards the Dolphin 
bank, on which the sea often breaks. 

It is also possible to enter by the channel south of this bank, and by 
luffing, come to an anchor in 8| fathoms, or else to tack into the bay 
in order to reach the anchorage mentioned above. 

COd/St* — Utuhaihai point is low and covered with cocoa-nut trees and 
iron-wood. The tomb of . the Pomares is situated here by the side of a 
Protestant church, a large white building visible from seaward. 

From off Utuhaihai point a reef awash extends without a break to 
Taunoa pass, a distance of 1^ miles, and from 3| to 4^ cables from the 
shore. 

Fapawa harbour. — inside this reef is a large basin obstructed by 
banks of coral, between which is a winding channel with depths of 8 to 
11 fathoms, sand, about one cable wide, which is called Papawa harbour. 

A pass about half a cable wide which opens into Matavai bay opposite 
Utuhaihai point gives access to this harbour. 



28 SOCIETY ISLANDS. [chap. ir. 

I'he anchorage is N .W. of the king's house, a large European building 
with a verandah, close to the beach, and about 3 cables S.W. of TTtuhaihai 
point. 

COftSt. — From Utuhaihai point as far as Fareute point, a distance of 
about 3 miles, the coast is low, and the foot of the mountains receding into 
the intexior leaves a plain of more than half a mile wide, well wooded, 
cultivated, intersected by many pretty rivers and with numerous huts. 

Taunoa pass* — This pass is about 1^ cables wide and clearly marked 
by the edges of the reef awash on either side. However, on the East 
side is a rock with only 9 feet of water, and on which the sea sometimes 
breaks, lying about 150 yards N.W. of the point of the reef. Another 
rock is situated inside the pass near the west side, about half a cable 
S.S.E. of the west point of the reef, and marked by a white beacon. 

This pass may be recognised by a remarkable rugged peak, called 
Diadem e mountain, which will be seen through a deep valley, beai*ing 
S.S.E. ^- E. when abreast the entrance. 

Taunoa pass is one of the best in Tahiti, as it is wide and clear, with 
no dangerous bar, and the breeze is more regular than at Fapiete. 
Sailing vessels going to Fapiete often take advantage of entering by the 
Taunoa pass and using the narrow but well beaconed channel which 
connects Taunoa and Fapiete. 

The current nearly always run out through the pass, but is not very 
strong. 

Beacons. — Two white pyi*amidal beacons are placed on the shore 
close to the beach, which kept in line on a S.E. ^ S. bearing lead 
through the middle of the pass. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage in Taunoa harbour is with the 
two beacons in line, and Arahiri point, on the east side of the harbour 
E. by N. J N. Small vessels can anchor nearer the eastern reef, where 
the water will be calmer. The bottom is black sand. 

The anchorage in Taunoa harbour is good with easterly winds, but as 
the pass is wide, the swell sets in and rolls upon the sandy beach at the 
bottom of the bay. With strong N.W. winds it will be dangerous, and 
landing impossible for boats even by entering the reef either one side or 
the other. 

Taunoa channel, which connects Taunoa and Fapiete harbours, 
is well beaconed, having white beacons on the south side of the channel 
and red beacons on the north. The channel, which is very winding is 
about 1^ miles in length, and it would be imprudent to use it without a 
pilot. Vessels drawing as much as 19 feet can use it with safety, but 
large vessels will experience some difficulty in making the sharp turns at 
the eastern end of the channel. 



cHAP.n.] TAXJNOA. — ^PAPIETE HARBOUR. 29 

At the Taunoa end, are two banks of coral which divide it into thi*ee 
narrow paflsages in which are depths of 6 J fathoms. A white beacon 
marks the north point of the « northern patch, and a red beacon the south 
point of the southern patch ; between them, an anchor is placed between 
the two beacons with the fluke above water to permit making fast a 
hawser. 

FAPIETE HARBOUR, which is the most important, and affords 
the best shelter in the island, is enclosed between the shore and barrier reef, 
through which there is only a narrow passage. The northern half is 
somewhat obstructed by coral reefs, but the southern part is clear of 
dangers, about one mile in length N.E. and S.W. and 3 cables broad, with 
depths varying from 8 to 19 fathoms, sand and mud. 

From Fareute point, the north-east point of the harbour, the coast turns 
sharply to the eastward for about IJ cables, then curves to the southward 
for nearly 4 cables, and then trends W.S.W. for about 1 J miles to Nuutere 
point. 

On approaching from seaward the first object in the town which comes 
into view is the white steeple of the church, which is situated 4J cables 
S.E.^ S. of Fareute point, and overlooks the trees under which most of 
the other buildings are hidden. 

Immediately over the town is a bare hill, named mount Faiere, which 
terminates in a plateau 236 feet above the sea, on which is a battery over 
which the French flag is generally hoisted. At 1^ cables N.N.E. of the 
battery is a semaphore station with flagstaff. 

Pass. — The entrance into Papiete harbour is a break about 2^ cables 
wide in the barrier reef, which is unfortunately so narrowed by the shallow 
water on either side, that the deep water channel is hardly more than 100 
yards wide. On the west side of the pass is a bank extending from the 
reef for 1-^ cables across the pass, upon which there is only 1 J and 2 fathoms 
of water. The sea nearly always breaks on this bank, which is called the 
bar. 

On the east side a bank extends for three quarters of a cable into the 
pass, with depths of 1^ and 2 fathoms ; on the western extremity of this 
bank a white nun buoy is moored. The two leading marks into the 
harbour cross about 20 yards to the westward of this buoy in 5 fathoms. 

Unless having local knowledge, it is advisable for sailing vessels to take 
a pilot into the harbour, as he will be able to give information how the 
wind is at the anchorage, which is often different to the breeze outside. 

Currents. — Outside the reef the current generally sets to the west- 
ward about a knot an hour, which should be borne in mind when about 
to enter. 



30 SOCIETY ISLANDS. [chap. n. 

The tidal streams are but little felt at Tahiti; the currents which 
prevail in the pass being due chiefly to the state of the sea upon the 
neigh1x>uring reefs. The volumes of water thrown by the waves over the 
reef off Faa cause a current which runs out towards the pass to the N.E. 
and North ; while the current from the water driven in over the Taunoa 
reef runs towards the pass in a W.S.W. direction along the inside edge of 
the barrier reef ; so that the resulting current depends on the preponderance 
of one or the other of the currents which form it. 

When the sea is heavy to the southward of the harbour and slight upon 
the northern reef, the current from Faa is the stronger and the current 
through the pass is more northerly ; this generally is the case in the fine 
season. But when the swell comes from the north and breaks heavily 
upon the Taunoa reef, the westerly current prevails and the current through 
the pass is more westerly. Under these circumstances the pass of Papiete 
becomes very dangerous, as the sea is heavy, and the current, which some- 
times attains a rate of 4 or 5 knots, sets right upon the bar. 

Motu-Tlta is an island lying 3 cables S.W, by W. of Fareute point, 
between the shore and the outside reef. It is a sandy island, upon which a 
battery has been built and is planted with cocoa-nut trees, situated upon 
a coral reef awash, which is separated from the neighbouring reefe by 
deep channels. A gun is placed as a beacon upon the point of the 
reef opposite Fareute point. 

Reefs. — Three other reefs awash, separated by deep channels lie 
south-west of Motu-uta, extending in a line in an E.S.E. direction from the 
pass. The western reef is marked by a gun on the western edge, and a 
white beacon on its south extreme. The other two reefs are each marked 
by a gun on their southern ends. 

In the south-west part of the harbour is an isolated patch of coral called 
Soaotoi reef, lying about 2 cables from the shore. 

Buoy* — Ikying 2 cables S.E. of the pass is a rock with a depth of 4^ 
fathoms over it, marked by a nun buoy, painted red and white in broad 
vertical stripes. 

Leading marks. — Two white obelisks, about 40 feet high, for 
leading through the entrance, are in line on a S. by E. J E. bearing, and 
are placed, one on the eastern edge of the Soaotoi reef and the other on the 
beach opposite. 

Two wooden structures, IJ cables apart, and in line on a S.E. ^ S. 
bearing, on which red lights are exhibited at night, are placed, one on the 
eastern side of the masked battery, and the other rather higher up on the 
Broom road ; the lower light shows as a pale red colour, and the upper dark 
red. A white mark is situated in the ravine on the same bearing and ^\ 
cables from the upper light. 



cHAP.ii.] PAPIETB HABBOUB. 31 

Directions. — ^Papiete harbour presents no difficulty of entry for 
a steam vessel, and may be used by the largest vessels, except in gales 
from the north-westward. For sailing vessels, great caution is necessary 
especially in light winds, and a pilot should always be employed. 

By night, sailing vessels should never attempt to enter, as they are almost 
sure to find the land breeze in the pass ; but steam vessels can enter with- 
out fear as long as they know the marks. 

For entering, bring the two obelisks in line S. by E. ^ E., and steer in on 
that bearing with good way on, leaving the white nun buoy in the pass close 
on the port hand. On passing the buoy, the tw o light-houses and white mark 
on the hill will come in line ; haul up and steer with them in line bearing 
S.E. ^ S. and when past the buoy on the 4 ^ fathom rock, steer for anchor- 
age as requisite. 

Should the beacons for entering not be in their places, it will be suffi- 
cient to bring the distinctly marked slope of a peak in the interior to bear 
S. 54° E., and steer for it. On nearing the reef, the entrance will easily be 
found by the interruption in the breakers.* 

AncllOr&ge. — In all parts of the harbour anchorage may be obtained 
in from 8 to 19 fathoms to within half a cable of the shore. If intend- 
ing to remain some time, it is better to moor, as the wind shifts about 
continually, causing a foul anchor. 

Papiete harbour is convenient in many respects, but is subject to calms 
and much hot weather in consequence of being rather to leeward, and the 
trade wind being obstructed by groves of cocoa-nut trees. 

Bain squalls seen in the direction of point Venus and a little to the 
southward of it, usually reach the anchorage ; but those collecting over 
Aorai peak and the other heights seldom descend to the harbour, f 

Papiete or Papeete, the seat of government of the Society islands, 
is situated at the foot of the highest mountains in the island, and extends 
from Fareute point for about a mile to the westward along the beach, termi- 
nating with a masked battery which is situated nearly opposite the pass. 
Various quays have been built which admit of the largest vessels going 
alongside and several consuls reside here. 

Tug. — There is a small tug at Papiete which tows vessels for 3 miles 
from Motu-uta, charging 25 francs per 100 tons or fraction of 100 tons> 
To obtain her services it is only necessary to ask by the international code 
of signals, and the request is passed on by the semaphore station. This 
tug is generally absent from Papiete from 3 p.m. on Saturday to 3 p.m. on 
Sunday. 



♦ Berlin Annalen der Hydrographie, Heft 1 of 1879. 

t Remark book, Lieatenant £. Fleet, H.M.S. Gannet, 1881. 



32 SOCIETr ISLANDS. [chap. n. 

Resources. — The French Government have an arsenal and small 
factory on Fareute point, where repairs to machinery may be effected 
on a moderate scale ; and a quay adapted for heaving down vessels of all 
sizes. 

There is no dry dock or patent slip, nor any convenient place to lay 
a vessel aground, the bottom being coral, and the tide range only one 
foot. 

Supplies. — Beef of indifferent quality brought from the Marquesas 
and Sandwich islands may be obtained at 25 cents per lb., and good 
pork at 20 cents a lb., poultry is dear, vegetables and fruit cheap and 
abundant. 

Water niay be procured from a tank or brought off in bulk from the 
hydrants either at the arsenal wharf or the government wharf opposite the 
French flagstaff. 

Coal. — The government has a coal depot of about 2,000 tons ; and a 
supply can generally be obtained from the firm of Goddefroy or the 
Society Commercial; it is chiefly Australian coal, the price being 13 dollars 
per ton. 

Coast. — From Papiete pass the barrier reef trends for about 3 miles 
W.S.W. at one mile from the shore, then it turns sharply .to the S.S.E. 
for 3 miles to Taapuna pass. 

From Papiete to the Taapuna valley the foot of the mountains come 
close down to the sea, with here and there a narrow wooded plain between 
them and the beach. This coast curves slightly as far as the villoge of Faa, 
opposite which is a large wooded islet, named Motu Tehiri, and then 
trends at right angles to the southward as far as Punaavia. 

Faa cliannel. — Between the outside reef and the coast is a channel 
about 5 miles long and from half a cable to 3^ cables wide, with depths 
of from 6^ to 13^ fathoms, which connects Papiete harbour with Taapuna 
pass. This channel is accessible to the largest vessels ; in the middle are 
several shoals which are plainly visible from the masthead. 

The water thrown in by the surf breaking upon the reef, collects in this 
channel and escapes on one side by Papiete pass and on the other by 
Taapuna pass. 

Taapuna pass is dangerous and not recommended. It is more than 
half a cable wide between the reefs awash, but is encumbered with banks, 
upon one of which is only 7 feet of water ; between these banks there is 
only a narrow and winding channel of deep water. 

The current always sets out strongly, especially when the sea is heavy 
upon the reef ; at such times the surf breaks upon the shoals in the pass, 
which becomes a mass of breakera. . 



CHAP. II.] TAAPUNA PASS.— PUNAAVIA BAY. 33 

Diroctions. — ^ going out, it is necessary to keepJjVery close to the 
reef on the north side, and steer west;, thus passing over some] depths of 13 
feet, upon which a small vessel might touch with the ^swell. To follow 
the winding passage where there is more water, it is necessary* to steer from 
aloft. 

It would be very imprudent to attempt to enter this pass, and it is 
necessary to be sure of having a good speed to stem the current. Keep in 
the middle of the outer part of the entrance steering E.N.E., then turn to 
starboard and keep close to the reef on the north side. 

It is better for a boat desiring to visit any place between Papiete and 
Taapuna, to enter by the Papiete pass. 

Coast. — ^From Taapuna valley, the plain lying between the foot of 
the mountains and the sea becomes broader and is sometimes half a mile 
across. At 1^ miles south of Taapuna pass is Punaruu valley, which is 
an immense gorge cutting the niountains from top to bottom and 
penetrating to the middle of the island, where it opens out into a vast 
amphitheatre hemmed in by the peaks of Orohena, Aorai and Diad^rae, 
which are visible to seaward when opposite the gorge. 
• A river runs through this valley bearing the same name, whose deposits 
have formed Punaavia point and the bottom of the bay of the same name. 

Upon the lower slopes on the left bank of the Punaruu are several 
blockhouses, constructed at the time when xhe island was taken posses- 
sion of. Another blockhouse is on the shore at Punaavia point, and 
an iron bridge crosses the river about half a mile from the coast. 

Reef. — From Taapuna pass the barrier reef approaches the coast and 
joins the beach 6 cables north of Punaavia point. Between Taapuna and 
this point there is a passage for boats between the reef and the shore. A 
narrow gap named Taipari pass allows the water to escape which accumu- 
lates by the surf breaking on the reef. 

Punaavia bay is the name given to the part of the coast, about 
6 cables long, where the barrier reef ceases and forms a small bight 
where anchorage may be obtained in depths up to 27 or 33 fathoms, sand 
and mud. 

In the north part of the bay, opposite the place where the biarrier 
reef ends, there is a coral reef about 3 cables long north and south at 
half a mile from the shore, upon which are depths varying from 6^ to IS 
fathoms. 

At 2^ cables N.W. by.N. of Punaavia point is a bank of 16 feet called 
the Phaeton bank. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage is half a mile from Punaavia i>oint 
in from 8 to 11 fathoms, sand and mud, with the blockhouse on the point 
bearing S. by E. 

XL 16615. 



<3HAP.ii.] MAEAA PASS. — POPOTB BAY. 35 

TLe current in the pass depends upon the state of the sea on the neigh- 
bouring reefs, and sometimes attains a rate of 4 to 5 knots : on meeting 
the sea, it breaks right across, when entering becomes impracticable. 

AncllOrage* — Opposite the pass, near a little water-course, anchorage 
may be obtained in 11 fathoms, sand, with Maraa point bearmg W. \ N. 
about 2^ cables. 

Reefs. — From Maraa pass the barrier reef extends to the eastward 
for 3 J miles, about three-quarters of a mile from the shore, inside which 
there are a series of large basins with deep water, strewn with coral patches, 
with deep water between, where anchorage may be obtained almost any- 
where. Besides Maraa pass there are two other channels through the reef, 
Topiro pass, 1 J miles east of Maraa pass and Ava-iti pass two miles further 
east ; they are small imd deep, but only practicable .for boats in calm 
weather, and when the sea is heavy they are very dangerous. 

At Terehe about a mile to the eastward of Ava-iti pass there is a boat 
passage into the reef opposite the chief house and church which are visible 
from seaward; the current runs out strongly and the passage is only 
practicable when the swell is not very heavy. 

Coast. — ^From Maraa point the coast trends for 6 miles E. by S. to 
Popotebay; the appearance of the country changes, th(B climate becomes 
nioister than the part between point Venus and Mai'aa point, the trees 
descend to the foot of the mountains, and in the plain the orange and 
citron flourish abundantly. 

From Papara the foot of the mountains recede from the coast, leaving 
a plain about half a mile broad and 4^ miles long. 

PopOte bay. — This bay is formed by a break in the reef about half 
a mile broad, and some banks extending for 2^ cables to seaward from the 
eastern reef, enclosing a harbour in which the depth does not exceed 11 
fathoms, bottom sand and gravel : it is too much exposed to the south- 
westerly swell to be a safe anchorage, but is convenient with easterly winds. 

The Taharuu river, which is one of the largest in Tahiti flows into this 
bay from a deep gorge penetrating to the middle of the island. 

Reefs. — The barrier reef recommences at Mahaiatea point, the eastern 
side of Popote bay, and extending for about a mile from the land forms a 
curve for more than 3 miles to the eastward to Aifa pass. This reef 
encloses a large basin with depths of from 8 to 16 fathoms, which, althougli 
strewn with coral patches oflTers numerous anchorages which used to be 
much frequented. 

Taevaraa pass, is at the western end of this basin, about a mile 
from Popote bay ; it is broad but has only 13 feet of water in it. Directly 
exposed to the swell from S.W. it is more of a bar than a pass and the sea 
almost always breaks across it. 

c 2 



36 SOCIETY ISLANDS. [chap. u. 

Small vessels might possibly use it, when the easterly winds prevented 
their getting oat of Alfa pass, as they can anchor and make sure that the 
bar is practicable, but they ought never to attempt to enter under any 
circumstances. 

Alfa pass. — This pass much resembles that of Papiete ; it is formed 
"by a break in the exterior reef 2 cables broad, which is obstructed on the 
western side by a bar which extends for about 2 cables to seaward, leaving 
^n oblique channel about half a cable wide between it and the point of the 
eastern reef which is steep-to and clear. This pass is often dangerous and 
witli a heavy swell from the southward, which is frequent, the current 
runs out against the sea, causing heavy breakers right across the entrance 
when it would be rash to attempt entering. 

Directions. — ToenterAifa pass, sailing vessels should make sure that 
there is a fresh breeze inside the reefs. Steer N.W. ^ N., passing close to 
the point of the reef on the eastern side, and then alter course to N. f E. 
four coral patches will then be left on the port hand, on the northern of 
"which is a small sandy islet. Then pass between two small patches awash 
which are each marked by a red buoy, 1^ cables apart, lying just to 
westward of the south point of Mapeti island, which is near the N.W. 
end of the eastern reef. Then leave a coral patch, whose north point is 
marked by a black beacon, on the port land. Another coral patch lies 1 ^ 
cables S.W. of this patch also marked by a black beacon. 

Anchorage may be obtained between the two beacons and the land in 
Jrom 11 to 16 fathoms, sand, close to the chief house of Mataiea, situated 
on the banks of a pretty river. 

In going out, pass close to the point of the eastern reef and then 
steer S.E. 

The channels which lead between the patches inside the reefs to the 
Avestward of Aifa pass, are marked with circular beacons and tripods, 
j)ainted white, black, and black and white. 

Rautirare pass, about l^ miles east of Aifa pass, is 2 cables wide, 
opi.Mi to the southward, and is perfectly clear and practicable at all times. 
On the eastern side of the channel near the N.W, corner of the reef is 
Pururu islet, situated about half a mile inside the outer line of breakers. 

PapCUriri bay is inside this pass and extends for about 4^ cables 
^ach way. It is perfectly clear and the depth varies from 8 to 13 fathoms, 
black sand ; lesser depths of 5 fathoms extend at most to three-quarters of 
a cable from the shore. The coast is lined with a beautiful sandy beach, 
and the important river of Vairaharaha discharges itself opposite the pass. 

Anchorage, which is generally safe, may be obtained anywhere in the 
.bay, and especially near Pururu islet. However, the pass is so wide 
that a vessel would not be sheltered with strong winds and a heavy sea 



CHAP. 11.] PAPEURIKI BAY. — PAPEABI HAKBOTJK. B1 

from the southward, and she would have to enter one of the channel&- 
which communicate with Alfa pass on the west and Temarauri pass on. 
the east. 

Otutara Clia^IIIIOl, which connects the anchorage opposite Aif» 
pass with Papeuriri ba^, is a narrow beaconed channel about 8^ cables 
long and a quarter of a cable wide in the narrowest part, having a depth of 
8 to 1 1 fathoms, with the exception of two shoal patches on which there- 
are only 3 j and 3^ fathoms/ 

Cod/St. — From Otiaroa point, which is opposite Pururu islet, the coast 
bends suddenly to the northward for about half a mile, and then trends 
E. by N, ^ N. for 3 miles to Oneroa point which is situated opposite 
Hotumatuu pass. The hills come close to the sea coast and then run back 
again at Papeari, forming a plain more than half a mile broad to Oneroa^ 
point. The mountains, wooded to the base, are cut into a series of gorges, 
parallel to one another, from which several rivers flow. 

The outer reef which extends for more than a mile from the land, trends-- 
to the eastward for nearly 2 miles from Rautirare pass and then turn» 
suddenly to the N.E. for about 1^ miles to Hotumatuu pass. 

Temarauri pass, which is about half a mile westward of Hotumatuu. 
pass, gives access to a series of basins which extend to the westward for 
about ] ^ miles, and communicate by a narrow channel with Papeuriri bay. 
It is one cable broad and 3 cables long in a N.W. by W. direction ; but 
the eastern reef extends to the S.S.W. right in front of the pass, and 
forms a bar over which it is generally unwise to pass. The pass thus form^ 
an elbow at its mouth in a nortli and south direction. 

A small reef awash, lies about 2| cables inside the entrance, and about 
half a cable from the eastern reef, leaving a passage about three-quarters of 
a cable broad between it and the western reef. 

On entering this pass steer N.N.W., leaving the point of the western 
reef about half a cable on the port hand; after rounding this point alter 
course to N.W. by W., looking out for the isolated reef on the starboard 
hand. 

Papeari harbour) which is situated inside this pass, is about half 
a mile long and 4 cables broad, and separated from a second bann, called* 
port Ataiti, by a point from the outer reef, which extends to within 2 cables 
of the shore ; this point is prolonged by a bank which only leaves a 
passage half a cable wide between it and the land ; the N.E. point of 
the bank is marked by a black tripod. 

The. depths in the harbour vary between 13 and 19 lathouis, sand or 
mud ; and the usual anchorage is in the direction of the pass at ?. to 2| 
cables from the land, opposite the mouth of a small rivulet. 



OHAP.Eu] TBPUTO PASS. — PORT PHAETON. 39 

It affords good anchorage for aboat half a mile from north to south, and 
2^ cables wide, in from 16 to 22 fathoms, sand and mud. With Toahutu 
point E. by N. | N., and Mitirapa bridge N. by E. \ E., there will be 
swinging room of 1^ cables in all directions. 

From the north end of Matuhu bank there is a channel 2 cables wide 
between the shore reefs, and from 8 to 16 fathoms deep, leading to port 
Phaeton. Halfway between Matahu bank and Teaua point there is a 
reef on the west side, the eastern point of which is marked by a black 
beacon. There is also a small patch near Teaua, at which point the 
channel opens into port Phaeton. 

Port FliaGtOIl. — This harbour is more than one mile long from 
Teaua point to the isthmus of Taravao, the sides are indented by deep bays 
blocked with coral, but in the middle there is a channel 2 cables wide and 
quite clear, and affording anchorage anywhere in from 5 to 11 fathoms, 
with an excellent holding ground of mud. 

Near the head of the port is a stone jetty built out to the edge of the 
reef to facilitate landing. 

Reef* — From Teputo pass the outer reef runs in a straight line 
S.E. by S. for about 5 miles to Ava-iti pass. At 2J miles from Teputo 
pass is a break in the reef called Tapueraha pass, and the outer reef lying 
between the two, which is about half a mile wide, is called Temaino reef. 

Tapueraha pass is about 3 cables wide, but the navigable channel 
is narrowed by a shoal which extends to the southward from the Temaino 
reef for about 1^ cables, on which there is only from 9 to 12 feet of water, 
and by a shoal from the south reef on which there is about 3 fathoms, 
leaving a deep channel about a cable wide between them. 

Inside the pass there is a harbour about 8 cables wide, which is safe, and 
affords anchorage in from 10 to 22 fathoms. The swell enters by the 
pass and breaks upon the beach. 

At 2f cables inside the entrance and north of the pass is a small patch 
with 3 J fathoms ; and another patch upon which there is only 5 feet of 
water lies about 2 J cables to the south-east of the entrance. 

Between Temaino reef and the shore there is a narrow channel marked 
with beacons connecting Toahutu basin with this hai'bour, and another 
channel 2^ cables wide leads into the large basin to the southward 
called port Vairao, in which there is deep water, with several reefs marked 
by beacons, between which anchorage may be obtained almost anywhere. 

Coast. — ^To the southward of port Vairao is a rounded point where' the 
coast turns to the eastward for about 3 cables and then trends S.E. for 
about 1^ miles to the low point of Arahuhu, close to which is the village of 
Teahupu, it then continues in the same direction for 1 J miles to the low point 
of Fare Mahora, after which it trends E. ^ S. for 5 miles to Fareara point. 



40 SOCIETY ISLANDS. [chaf.ul 

The whole of this coast is dominated by high mountains, between which 
are deep gorges and valleys running towards the centre of the peninsula. 

Ava-iti pass. — This is a small pass only about 80 yards wide and 
2 cables long, and 13 to 16 feet water at the entrance; it is only practicable 
in very fine weather and for vessels of small tonnage. 

Reefs* — From Ava-iti pass the outer reef curves to the eastward for 
2^ miles, past the Ava-ino pass, to Havae pass, on the east side of which 
it rejoins the shore at Fare Mahora point, leaving only a boat channel 
along the shore. It then trends E. by S. for about 4 miles at about half a 
mile* from the shore, past the Puuotohe pass as far as Vaiau pass, situated 
opposite a valley of the same name. 

Beyond Vaiau pass it trends E.S.E. for a mile and then turns sharply to 
the northward to within a cable of the shore, from which it is separated by 
Tutataroa pass. It thus forms a point beyond which the line of reef con- 
tinues in a series of coral banks along the coast at about a mile from the 
shore. 

Inside this line of reefs there are some basins of deep water, which are 
much encumbered however by coral patches, and the passes through the 
reefs are narrow and often shallow, so that they can only be made use of 
generally in fine weather. 

Ava-ino pass is about 3 cables wide, and only a bar, whicli ought 
never to be used by vessels. Boats can only enter when the sea is calm, 
and have always to be careful of the blind rollers. 

Havae pass is near Fare Mahora point and opposite a ridge which 
separates the valleys of Mahire and Vaiaia. 

This pass is straight, deep and clear, one cable wide and 2 cables long^ 
opening out into a small circular basin, where anchorage may be obtained 
in 13 fathoms, sand, with swinging room of one cable. This basin being 
open to the pass is not sheltered from the swell from south-westward, and 
can only be considered a temporary anchorage. 

To the north-west of the basin is a channel 60 yards wide and 1^ cables 
long, leading into a narrow and well-sheltered basin where the holding 
ground is good ; but when anchored in the middle there is only about 1 30 
yards swinging room. 

Puuotohe pass, about IJ miles from the Havae pass is nearly two 
cables wide, but the eastern side is occupied by a shoal, which only leaves 
a channel 40 to 50 yards wide, and 3| fathoms deep, practicable only in 
fine weather. The pass is only half a cable long and opens out quickly 
after the line of breakers is passed. 

Vaiau pass, near the south end of the peninsula, lies opposite mount 
Faretua, a large mountain whose summit 3,189 feet high is well marked. 
The break in the reef is a cable wide, but a reef awash divides it into two 



CHAP. II.] HAVAE.PASS. — TUTATAROA PASS. 41 

channels, the eastern of which is narrow and winding, and although 4^ 
fiathoms deep is only practicable for boats in fine weather. The western 
channel is half a cable wide but has a small coral head, on which is 2| 
fathoms, projecting a short distance to the N.W. of the middle re^f . The 
outer point of the western reef extends for 2 cables to seaward, but is steep- 
to inside the pass. 

Fort Vaidrll, which lies inside this pass, is about one mile long aud 
3 cables wide with depths of from 10 to 22 £athoms, mud. Although 
containing a great number of isolated banks, it affords fair anchorage in 
16 fathoms, mud, with 1^ cables swinging room, to the S.W. of Maraetiria 
point, which is low, and formed by the deposits of the Vaiau river. 

There are two openings into this port, the passes of Vaiau and Tuta- 
taroa, and another channel connects it with the basins to the westward. 

Tutataroa pass is situated between the shore and the outer reef, 
which turns. to the northward perpendicularly to the coast about a mile to 
the eastward of Vaiau pass. It is one cable broad and 4 cables long in a 
W. by N. direction ; the shore reef does not extend to more than half a 
cable firom the beach, but is prolonged at the entrance by a small patch of 
6 feet which leaves the deep channel only two- thirds of a cable wide ; and 
there is another patch which projects from the shore reef where the pass 
opens into port Vaiau. The outer reef is steep- to on the south side of the 
pass. 

Coast* — From Tutataroa pass, the S.E. coast of the Taiarapu peninsula 
trends to the E.N.E. for 2 miles to Bapae point and then N.N.E. for 2 
miles to the Vaiote valley opposite which the reef awash recommences. 
This part of the coast which is not defended by the barrier reef presents 
quite a different appearance to that part which is inside the reef; the 
mountains fall precipitately to the sea forming a line of steep cliffs against 
which the sea breaks furiously when the fresh breezes from the eastward 
are blowing. 

Banks* — This coast is surrounded by a belt of submerged reefs 
which extend for 2 or 3 miles to seaward. The heavy waves from the 
S.W. which strike upon these banks, with the sea raised by the easterly 
winds, form enormous waves, and the vicinity should be avoided. 

Coast. — From Vaiote valley the coast trends to the northward for 
about 3 miles to the fine valley of Vaitoto, but little information is known 
about this part. 

Hoofs. — The reef awash which commences off Vaiote extends along 
the coast to the northward about a mile from the shore ; two wooded islets 
are situated near the south end of this reef, opposite the valley of Toraotai. 
A pass lying between the shore and the islets leads to an anchorage opposite 
this valley. 



• • 



42 SOCIETY ISLANDS. [ciuf.ii. 

Tomotai pass. — ^This is a bad passage which runs in a W. by N. 
direction, and in entering or leaving, vessels should keep near the northern 
reef to avoid some sunken rocks. When the islets are on the starboard 
beam on entering, alter course to the northward to gain the anchorage. 

Vaiunut pass is about 2 miles north of Tomotai pass, and leads in 
in a S.W. direction.. Inside is a good harbour which communicates with 
Vaionifa pass, about 2 miles further north, by a deep channel. 

Coast. — From Vaiurua pass the coast trends to the northward for about 
a mile to Vaitoto point, where a river of the same name flows into the sea 
from a deep and clifl^ gorge which penetrates far into the interior. The 
point is formed by a plain which projects about 3 cables from the foot of 
the mountains. 

From Vaitoto, the coast which is bounded by a plain which varies from 
one to two cables in width, trends N.W. for about 3 miles to Tautira point, 
from whence it turns to the W. by N. 

Tautira point, on which is an important village, is a tongue of low 
wooded land about 3 cables wide extending to the northward for three- 
quarters of a mile from the foot' of the mountains, and is formed by the 
deposits from the Vaitepiha river which is one of the largest in Tahiti. 

Reef. — The outer reef runs along the coast at half a mile from the 
shore, enclosing channels of deep water inside. From Vaionifa pass it 
trends to the N.W. in a straight line, rounding Tautira point at 2 cables 
and ending abruptly to the westward of the point. 

Between Vaionifa and Tautira there is a gap about 2 cables wide, in 
which there is only 9 feet of water. 

Vaionifa pass is about one cable wide and 1^ cables long, open to 
the N.E. The point of the reef on the northern side extends to the 
westward for about half a cable, but the remainder of the pass is perfectly 
safe. 

In the inside, just opposite the pass, at one cable from the shore there is 
a small patch on which there is only 3 feet of water. 

To enter the pass steer S.W. in mid-channel with mount Roniu showing 
over the foot of mount Vaionifa. 

Between this pass and Tautira there is a large basin, 2 to 3 cables broad 
and 2^ miles long, which ends in a cul-de-sac at the north end, with the 
exception of a small boat channel to the village. There are depths of 19 to 
37 fathoms, mud, almost everywhere, but at the north end the soundings 
decrease gradually to 16 and 8 fathoms. 

Coast.— From Tautira point the coast trends W. by N. for 5 miles to 
a short distance beyond the village of Pueu. The general direction is 
straight, but two low and wooded points called Pihaa and Faraari, project 
about 2 J cables to seaward ; the first at 2 miles from Tautira, and the 



CHAP. II.] VAIONIFA PASS. — TArTlBA BAY. 43 

second about a mile further on. The mouutaiDs behind are steep and 

cliffy from which numerous cascades descend. 

The only large break in the mountains is the valley of Haavini which 

opens between Pihaa and Faraari points. The plain between the foot of 
the mountains and the sea is very narrow, except at the two points and the 
entrance to the valley. 

Beefs. — The outer reef which ends abruptly westward of Tautira point 
recommences half a mile further on, forming with the point the bay of 
Tautira or Cook's anchorage. It then runs parallel to the coast at half a 
mile from the shore to a short distance beyond Pihaa point, where it is 
interrupted by the broad pass of Taharoa, to the westward of which it 
curves round Faraari point at a distance of 3 cables and runs along the 
shore for a mile beyond this point. 

These reefs are separated from the shore by passes and basins of deep 
water which are called port Pihaa and port Pueu, 

Tautira bay, or Cook's anchorage, is formed by Tautira point and 
reef on the east side, and the outer reef on the west side. 

It is half a mile broad, about the same depth, and open to the N.W., 
affording protection with winds from N.E. through South to W.N.W., but 
is dangerous with the wind from North to W.N.W. Cook anchored several 
times in this bay, from which circumstance the name is derived. 

The depth in the middle of the entrance is 55 fathoms, diminishing 
gradually to the shore. The East and S.E. part of the bay is lined with 
a sandy beach* 

The bay is clear, except a small patch of 2 fathoms, lying one cable 
south of the point of reef on the western side. 

The best anchorage is at about 2 cables from the shore in 8^ fathoms, 
sand, with the extremity of Tautira point bearing N.E. | N. 

Port Pihaa is the deep basin, 3 to 4 cables broad and 1^ miles 
long, which extends between the reef and the shore, from Tautira bay 
to Pihaa point, with depths of 16 to 19 fathoms, sand and mud, nearly 
everywhere. 

There are two openings into this port, that from the eastward from 
Tautira bay being a cable wide, but divided by the small 2 fathoms patch; 
the other firom the westward from Taharoa pass is only about 60 yards 
wide,' There are several small patches and reefs, especially near the eastern, 
end, and anchorage is good in all parts which are not encumbered by banks. 

Taharoa pass is a large break in the reef, about 4 cables wide, * 
opposite the valley of Haavini. Just within the entrance is a bank about 
a cable wide, with, only 8 to 6 feet water over it ; the ehamiel.on> *the east 
side is about a cable wide, that to the westward 2 cablen wide. ' There are 
also three other small patches in the bay. 



44 SOCIETY ISLANDS. [ohap. n. 

The best mark for entering is to steer S.S.E. \ E. for the cascade at 
Fihaa, which leads through the middle of the eastern chanel. The reef on 
the eastern side is steep -to. 

Port PueU IS situated between the outer reef and the shore near 
a village of the same name, just to the westward of Faraari point. 

From Faraari point the coast trends to the westward for 1^ miles to 
the low point of Tiitau. The outer reef runs parallel to the shore at about 
3 cables distant, for 1^ miles from Taharoa pass and ends abruptly half 
a mile N.E. of Tiitau point. At 2 cables west of this reef and north of 
Tiitau point is an isolated patch about 2 cables in diameter, the central part 
of which is awash. 

Between the outer reef and the shore is a deep channel which opens out 
a little to the westward of Faraari poiut and forms a basin 2^ cables wide 
called port Pueu in which" the depth varies from 13 to 25 fathoms, sand 
and mud. Entrance to this port can be effected either from the eastward 
by Taharoa pass or from the westward. 

About three-quarters of a mile to the westward of Faraari point, the 

■ 

outer reef is submerged for about 2 cables, on which there is only about 
6 feet of water, and may be mistaken for a pass when the sea is calm. 

Coast. — ^From Tiitau point the coast trends W.S.W. and then W. by N. 
for 3| miles to the isthmus of Taravao, from thence it turns and trends 
N. ^ W. 6^ miles to the Boudeuse pass, forming a large bay open to the N.E. 

The mountains, which are high and steep behind Pueu, descend in a 
gentle slope to the isthmus ; they are generally bounded towards the sea 
by perpendicular cliffs which overlook a low plain about a cable wide. 

On the highest part of the isthmus is a f urt which is visible from the 
sea to the eastward. 

To the north of the isthmus the mountains, which are densely wooded, 
hem the coast closely ; they are divided by numerous ravines, of which the 
most important are the valleys of Papeivi, Vaitoare, and Faone, the first 
at one mile, the second 1^ miles, and the third at 3 miles from Taravao. 

Roofs. — From the isolated bank off Tiitau, the outer reef is nearly 
altogether submerged, and forms a long chain of banks running in a 
straight line W. by N. for 3 miles to the deep passage which separates 
it from the reef off Vaitoare. The breadth is not more than one cable, 
and the depth varies generally from 9 to 20 feet, though at some places 
the coral is awash, and at others tliere are 5 or 6 fathoms forming passes 
into the basin inside. 

Tiitau pass i» the channel between the reef and isolated patch 
before mentioned, about 2 cables wide, which enables a vessel to get into 
Taravao bay from the eastward. 



CHAP. II.] PORT PUEU. — PORT VAITOARE. 45 

TaraVdrO bay is the large expanse of water between the outer reef 
and the shore, nearly a mile broad and more than 3 miles long. The 
general depth is from 21 to 27 fathoms, shoaling near the shore, and the 
bottom which is mud affords good holding ground. 

The bay is open to the N.E. and exposed to winds between north and 
east, as the banks only afford an insufficient shelter from the sea which 
breaks upon the beach. 

MotU NonO is a wooded islet in the bay inside the line of shoals, 
half a mile from the shore and If miles E. J N. of Taravao fort. It is 
surrounded by a shoal which extends nearly a cable from the beach. 

Banks. — Two isolated patches lie W. by N. J N. from Motu Nono, 
one at 3 cables with 2 fathoms and the other at one mile with 2^ fathoms. 
Another patch with 6 feet lies 4 cables east of the islet. 

Motu NonO pass, opposite the islet of the same name, is a de- 
pression in the line of reefs where there is 4 to 5 fathoms of water. For 
entering by this pass steer S. by W. ^ W. for the middle of the islet, and 
after passing the line of breakers alter course so as to pass at more than a 
cable on either side of the islet. 

Pass. — ^liy steering S.W. by W. for Taravao fort, the line of submerged 
reefs will be crossed at a place where there is a depth of about 5 fathoms. 
This line passes within one cable of the 2^ fathom patch lying one mile 
W. by N. ^ N. of Motu Nono ; in order to give this patch a wider berth, 
alter course to port after crossing the line of breakers, or when the islet 
bears S.E. by E. ^ E. 

Fapeivi pass, which lies between the extremity of the submerged 
reefs and the south point of the reef off Yaitoare, is about 1^ cables wide« 
with a least depth of 6 fathoms. 

To enter the pass steer S.W. by S. for Taravao fort, which will lead 
half a cable from the reef off Vaitoare. 

Port Vaitoare. — From Papeivi pass the reef awash trends to the 
northward parallel to the coast at 4 cables from the shore, for a distance of 
1^ miles, where it is separated by a narrow and deep channel, half a cable 
wide, from a bank named Paratahi, which extends 3 cables to the north- 
wanl to Faone pass, which is 2 cables broad, opposite the valley of the 
same name. 

The deep basin enclosed between the reefs and the shore, where the 
depth varies from 19 to 27 fathoms, sand and mud, is called port Vaitoare. 
It is clear except two small patches which are near the south end, and 
the shore reef does not extend to more than half a cable from the beach. 
Anchorage may be obtained an j where. 

Coast. — Between Faone valley and Hitiaa the mountains are very 
Rteep, broken by numerous valleys, and in some places towering over the sea. 



46 SOCIETY ISLANDS. [chap. ii. 

A short distance to the northward of the Faone valley is a chnrch with 
a spire, plainly visible from seaward. 

Reofs. — ^From Faone pass the outer reef trends to the northward at 
5 cables from the shore for about three-quarters of a mile until opposite the 
village of Utuofai. Between the reef and the shore is an anchorage where 
protection may be obtained from the eastward, but the swell rolls in from 
N.N.E. or S.E. The depth is generally 10 to 16 fathoms, sand and mud, 
gradually decreasing towards the shore, which is lined by a sandy beach. 

There are several patches, some of which are nearly awash, so that 
caution is needed when using the anchorage, the best position for which is 
with the church bearing S.S.W. J W. ; and Teruafaroa point S. by E. J E. 
in 14 fathoms, sand and mud. 

To the northward of this reef is a broad gap for about a mile, opposite 
the valley of Papeiha, when the outer reef commences again opposite 
Faatautia and extends to the northward in a slight curve, at about 4 cables 
from the shore, for 2 miles to the Boudeuse pass opposite Hitiaa. 

Inside this reef is a long channel of deep water about 2 miles in length 
and 2 cables broad, gradually narrowing near the northern end, with depths 
varying from 13 to 22 fathoms, mud. The entrance in from the southward 
is 1^ cables wide, and anchorage may be obtained in the middle of the 
channel in about 22 fathoms. 

Coast. — From Hitiaa the coast trends N.W. by N. for rather more 
than a mile to Mata-orio point, which is low and woody, to the northward 
of which is the small bay of Taipahia ; from thence it curves to the IST.^. 
for a mile to Putaiamo pwnt. 

The plain near the coast is from one to 3 cables wide to Mata-orio point, 
beyond which the mountains come close down to the coast. At half a mile 
N.AV . of Putaiamo point is the village and church of Mahaena, where two 
rivers discharge themselves into the sea near a sandy beach. 

Roofs. — To the northward of Hitiaa point the outer reef is broken by 
Boudeuse pass, beyond which it trends to the northward for about half a 
mile, with two low and wooded islets at its extremities, Oputotara at the 
southern and Variararu at the northern end. 

To the northward of Variararu the reef is submerged for half a mile, 
forming a pass, in the deepest part of which there is a channel of 3^ fathoms, 
practicable only in fine weather. The reef then comes to the surface and 
trends N.W. by N for about a mile to abreast of Putaiamo point, after 
which it extends for half a mile with depths of 2 to 3 fathoms over it to 
Mahaena pass. There are two low, wooded islets on this reef, one named 
Motu Puuru lying 5 cables N.E. f N. of Mata-orio point, and the other 
named Nansouty situated half a mile further north, 7 cables east of 
Putaiamo point. 



CHAP. II.] REEFS. — ^MAHAENA PASS. 47 

From hence to point Yenud the onter reef does not again come to the 
surface, bat continues along the coast as a chain of banks, the first of which 
is called Fana or Artemise baoJk. 

Boudeuse pasd, iies opposite Hitiaa, between the reef off that 
point and Oputotara islet. It is about 4 cables wide, but narrowed on the 
north side by a shoal which extends for about 2 cables from the islet ; in 
the middle of t^e pass is a patch on which there is only 4f fJEU^homs of 
water. 

Inside the pass, and between the islets and the shore is an anchorage 
called Bougainville harbolir, named after the celebrated navigator who 
anchol'ed here in the Boudeuse frigate in 1776. The anchorage is fairly 
sheltered, but the bottom is strewn with coral heads among which Bou- 
gainville lost several anchors ; caution is also necessary, as there are several 
patches and reefs scattered about. 

Mahaena pass is an opening about half a mile wide between the sub- 
merged reef which extends 6 cables N.N.W. of Nansouty islet and Artemise 
bank. 

Anchorage may be obtained in 19 to 2^ fathoms, sand and mud, between 
the islets of Nansouty and Motu Puuru and the shore, with shelter from 
seaward by the reef which joins the islets ; but it is open to the N.W. and 
insufficiently sheltered in that direction by the submerged reefs extending 
to the northward. The swinging room is limited and the swell sets in 
with winds from seaward. 

There are several patches and reefs which must be avoided when pickin*' 
up an anchorage here. 

Coast. — From Mahaena the coast trends N.W. by N. for a mile to the 
low point of Faaru, then it curves to the W. by N. for 2^ miles to Onoheha, 
beyond which it trends N.W. for 1^ miles to Faarunmi valley. The 
mountains come close to the coast, and the only important valley is that 
of Onoheha, which penetrates far into the island and having at the head a 
remarkable mountain named Matotea. 

Reefs. — From Mahaena the reefs are altogether submerged, and form 
to seaward of the coast a series of dangerous banks, the depth of water 
upon which is generally 3 fathoms and less, and extending at times to 
more than a mile from the shore. 

Between the banks and the shore are large open roadsteads in which the 
depth does not usually exceed 27 fathoms, sand. Anchorage may be 
obtained, but the banks are too much submerged to afford shelter from the 
gea, and the position is in a part of the island fully exposed to the pre- 
vailing wind. 

Several broad passes give access into these basins, and in fine wea;ther 
small vessels can pass over the banks when sure of the marks ; but during 



48 80CIBTr ISLANDS. Lc"^- n- 

the bad §eaBon when the winds blow from seaward, the sea is yerj heaTj 
apoD all the banks, espedaUj the Artenuse bank. 

Fana or Art^mise bank extends in a N.W. by N. direction 
from Mahaena pass for 2 miles, and then tnms sharply to the west for 
2 miles to Onoheha pass ; the sonndings varj from 2 to 5 fathoms, exo^t 
in a sort of pass aboat a mile east of Onoheha pass. 

The east side of Motn Fnom in line with the west side of Nansootj 
i^let, bearing S.S.E. | E., leads clear of the east side of this bank. The 
light on pmnt Venns is risible clear of Papenn point bearing W. \ N. 
whi^ on the northern edge of the bank. 

Onoheha pass '^ & channel about 4 cables wide oppossite the Tallej 
of the same name, with banks covered with 2^ and 5 fathoms on either 
side. Mount Matotea a little open to the right of the hills forming the 
east side of the valley leads through the pass at one cable from the reef on 
the east side. 

Coast.— *From Faarumai valley the coast trends W.N.W. for 2^ miles 
to the low point of Papenu, which extends for 2 cables from the foot of 
the mountains ; the mountains are steep to the coast for one mile to TJtu 
Turoa point, and then recede, forming the valley of Papenu, at the 
entrance to which is a plain 2 cables broad. 

Beyond Papenu point the coast trends to the westward for nearly 4 miles 
to point Venus. At 1^ miles from Papenu the sandy beach is interrupted 
by h hill named Tapahi, the sea face of which is a perpendicular cHff ; 
on the top of the hill is an old blockhouse. 

Faarumai pass, about 2 cables wide, is situated opposite the valley 
of the same name, and about a mile from Onoheha jtass. Inside the 
entrance and 2^ cables from the shore is a bank on which there is only 
2| fathoms. 

Papenu pass, at 2 miles N.W. of Faarumai pass is 4 cables wide 
and about 1^ miles from the shore. A S.S.W. \ W. course for the foot of 
the mountain forming the entrance on the west side of the valley leads 
thi'ous:h the pass. 

Maha Honu pass, l^ miles east of point Venus, is one cable wide, 
and a S.E. ^ S. course for the blockhouse on Tapahi hill leads through the 
pass. 

Port MotU Au. — ^At nearly a mile east of the lighthouse on point 
Venus is a large wooded islet called Motu Au, lying about 300 yards from 
the shore, from which it is separated by a channel with 5^ fathoms water. 
This islet is surrounded by a reef awash which extends to the northward 
for 3| cables from the coast. 



ciap.li.] MUREA OR EIMEO ISLAND. 49^ 

Between this reef and the east part of the reef off point Yen as, a pasB^ 
2f cables wide and open to the northward, gives access to a bay, at thor 
bottom of which a small river discharges itself. 

Anchorage maj be obtained in depths up to 32 fathoms, sand, on a gentle 
slope. With easterly winds there is tolerable anchorage near the reef of 
Motu Au, but it becomes dangerous when the winds are strong from^ 
N.E. to N.W. 

With N.W. to' S. W. winds, which, when they are fresh, render Matava> 
bay untenable and the pass at Papiete dangerous, anchorage may h& 
obtained here with temporary shelter. 

MUBEA or EIMEO ISLAND lies westward of Tahiti, the 
channel separating them being 7^ miles wide. Murea was discovered by~ 
Captain Wallis in 1767 ; it has, if possible, a more broken outline than- 
Tahiti and is more thrown up into separate peaks ; in places the mountains 
rise precipitously from the water to a height of 2,500 feet, and the highest 
peak named mount Tohivea in the southern part of the island is 3,975 feet 
high. 

The island is almost an equilateral triangle in shape, each side being: 
about 9 miles in length and surrounded by a barrier reef through which 
are several passages to the basins between it and the shore. On the 
north side are two deep indentations called Papetoai and Cook bays which 
afiPord snug and safe anchorages. At the north-east point is a small lagooir 
or lake in which are abundance of excellent fish. In 1881, the populatioir 
numbered 1,428. 

COESt. — Teavivo point, the eastern extremity of the island is low and* 
wooded and extends for more than half a mile from the foot of the^ 
mountains ; the coast then trends N. W. by W. for nearly 2 miles to Tiaia 
point where it turns to the W.S.W. for 2 J miles to the entrance of Cook 
bay. 

A barrier reef extends along this coast at about half a mile from th& 
shore, with two small passes into the enclosed basins. 

Cook or Faop&O bay is a narrow indentation in the land, per- 
pendicular to the coast, half a mile wide and nearly 1^ miles long. The* 
depth varies from 10 to 18 fathoms, mud, shoaling gi'adually towards the 
head of the bay where there is a small river.* 

Avaroa pass, which is the channel through the reefs into this bay, is 
1^ cables wide and 4 cables long in a S.E. direction, the sides are steep-to 
and the pass is safe in all weathers. 

The shore reef does not extend to more than half a cable from the beach 
ejccept off Nuupure point, the western entrance point, where it projects. 



* See plan on Admiralty chart No. 1,382. 
u 16615. p 



To enter the bay, steer S.S.E. ^ E. for the white house, which will lead 
through the pase aud up to the head of the bay. 

ADChor^e may be obtained near the head of the bay in from 10 to 16 
fathoms, mud ; and landing can be effected in the smalt cove on the west 
si<le, opposite the village of Ornfara, or on the beach at the head of the 
bdy, but the swell sometimes rolls in at the latter place. 

Coast. — From Papetoai bay the coast trends to the westward for 
2^ miles to the N.W. point, off which theic are two wooded islets, and is 
fronted by the usual barrier reef extending for 3 cables from the shore. 
There is a pass through this reef opposite Tehau point, with 5J fathoms 
of water aud half a cable wide which leads into the interior basin. 

From the N.W. point the coast trends in a general direction of S.E. for 
8 miles to Paroa point, the southern extremity of the island. The barrier 
reef extends about half a mile from the shore and is broken by four passes 
which give access for boats to the basins inside. 

From Paroa point the coast trends E. by N. for rntlier more than a 
mile to Nuupere point, which is low, from whence to the east point of the 
island the general dii'ection is N.N.E. for 6^ miles, with Beveral small 
bays backed by high and rugged mountains. 

The barrier reef extends for about half a mile froni the shore through 
which^there are three passes to the basins and channels within the reef. 



• See plan on Admiralty chart No. 1,382. 

t Conunander R. H. Thornton, H.M.S JTing/ffW, 1883. 



CHAP. II.] MTJEEA ISLAND. — TAPAMANTI ISLAND. 61 

Teruaupu pass lies about 1 J miles to the north of Nuupere point j it is 
deep and I J cables broad, leading into a basin in which there is deep 
water. 

Tupapauran pass lies 1 J miles further north, and is 2 cables brc;ad, but 
has only a depth of 3 J fathoms in the deepest part. Just to' the north- 
ward of the pass is the small islet of Motu Ahi. 

Vaiere pass which is nearly 2 miles south of the east point is one cable 
broad and 2 cables long ; the sides are steep and the water deep. On the 
southern side of the pass is the small islet of Motu Pehne which is low and 
bare. 

Inside this pass there is a wide and deep basin which is perfectly pro- 
tected from the sea and affords anchorage in from 19 to 27 fathoms, mud. 

CHANNEL between MUBEA and TAHITI. — The 

channel east of Murea, or Eimeo, should never be used but with steady 
winds from north-east or south-west, as these are the only winds that blow 
through the channel ; when there is a fresh breeze from the eastward to 
the northward of Tahiti it is calm in the channel. 

The north-west coast of Tahiti should not be approached, as the westerly 
current striking against Murea is turned back towards that part of Tahiti, 
and sets directly upon the coast. 

At times, when there is a meeting of easterly and westerly winds in the 
Murea channel, a heavy sea is raised, having the appearance of an un- 
broken line of breakers; this is dangerous for., boats, especially off the 
eastern point of Murea island, against which the current sets. Under all 
circiunstances this point should be given a wide berth. Vessels have 
remained becalmed in this channel for days whilst a fresh breeze prevailed 
to seaward. 

Steam-vessels from the south-west using the Murea channel should 
after passing the southern point of Murea, make the light on point Venus 
before keeping to the eastward. 

TETIAROA is a group of small, low islets about 6 miles in length, 
on which there are many cocoa-nut trees, enclosed by a reef about 30 miles 
in circuit, lying 27 miles northward of Tahiti, the south-east point of which 
is in lat. 17° 2" S., long. 149° 32" W. There is no entrance to the lagoon 
except for small canoes. 

TAPAMANU or SAUNDERS ISLAND, 37 miles 

W. by S. of Murea, was discovered in 1767 by Captain Wallis ; the 
greatest length from east to west is about 6 miles. In the centre of the 
island is a mountain with a double peak, but the greater part has a fertile 
appearance and the lower ground abounds with cocoanut trees. At a 
distance the island has much the appearace of a ship under sail. 

D 2 



52 SOCIETY ISIAITDS. [otat. n. 

HUAHEINE ia the easterniuoBt island of the leeward group which 
was named the Society U lands by Cook, who discoTered it in July 1 769. 
It, IS about 20 miles in drcnrnfereoce sod divided into two peninanlae, 
named respectively Hnaheine-Nui and Hnaheine-Ili, tiie iethmua con- 
necting them is overflowed at high water and forms a boat passage. 

Tliid island is sorrounded by a reef which, on the west, south, aud S.E. 
sides, U awash and dotted with several islets. 

With south-easterly winds the Uad is generally covered with clouds and 
hiddott by rain squalls, especially during the night, when it would not be 
pruiient to approach the island. In thick weather it is better to make the 
ilortli poiut of the island. 

'riiiM'c is a narrow strip of fertile land near the shore ; the hiUs indicate- 
voloiiiiii.' aclioti and ar« iu places cultivated. 

TIk' products are similar to those of Tahiti, but come earlier to 

'I'lit' piiptiltttion numht'r about 1,100, most of whom are Protestants. 

OwhtirrO harbour i^ situated at the north-west end of the island : 
llii> |n'iiit'i|iitU<utrHii<.v i^ju^t In tlio wo^twai-d of the aorth point, and there Ls 
iilsiMitiDllior iHitmiKi' t'urthvr to Iho southward, marked by a small wooded 
I'liy. 'nH' iiHiiH' iiftho wtllenwiit is Fwi.* 

'I'lu'i-'' «w two Niiiall iflots on the rvef between the north and south 
t'liiiiinvlH ! o\w iK'iir the N.W. end, aud the other on the southern part. A 
I'lH'k is rviKirtcd to exist in the south channel. 

1'Iki north channel is more than a cable wide at the entnuice, where there 
in II bnr about a cable across with 4^ ^thorns of water, which deepens to 
10 mill 20 fathoms inside. 

Anclioimge may be obtained ia 10 to 16 fathoms, mud, opposite the 
villn).'o. Large vessels should moor head and stem. 

A native pilot can be obtained if desired; if no pilot is used, half 
Iiilolage to be paid, according to port r^olations.f 

The king's house is in Ut. 16° 42' 31" S., long. 151" 1' 30" W. 

RAIATEA.— This island lies 20 miles westward of Huaheine, it is 
about 40 mites in circumference, of a mountainous character, covered with 
vegetation and well watered ; the highest peak, in the middle of the island, 
is 3,3i)0 feet high. 

stance of from 1 J to 2 miles from the shore the isUmd is encircled 
reef, which also includes the adjacent island of Tahaa. There 
) islets situated on the reef, and between the reef and mainknd 
several excellent anchorages. 

■ See plan on chart No. S26. 

t Berlin AnnaleD der Hydrograpliie, Heft 1 of ISTS. 



CHAP. II.] RAIATEA. — TlfiAVARUA HAKBOUR. 63 

Oovemmeilt. — The two islands of Raiatea and Tahaa foim a state, 
which is governed by a q«een, assisted by 12 district chiefs ; eight for 
Baiatea and four for Tahaa. The population numbered 1,200 in 1880. 

CommcrCB. — The principal articles of export are cotton, which is 
pressed into bales at a factory near Teavarua, and copra. 

Currents and tides. — The currents near these islands generally 
set to the N.W. with a velocity of 15 to 20 miles a day; but][though their 
strength is variable, they rarely set to the eastward. Inside the reefs the 
tidal streams are felt, the ebb generally stronger than the flood. The rise 
and fall of the tide does not exceed one foot. The time of high and low 
water, and the direction of the tidal streams are much affected by the state 
-of the sea, which when heavy runs over the reefs in large volumes.* 

T^avania or Uturoa harbour, on the east side of Eaiatea, 
is one of the best anchorages ; the two principal entrances are situated on 
either side of the southernmost of two islets, named Taoru. Caution is 
necessary on entering, as the tide sets right across the channel at times. 
The flood sets to the N.W. and the ebb to the S.E. The depth of 
water inside the reef is from 18 to 24 fathoms, and the holding ground 
as good. Thisbe anchoi'age is considered the best, and the channel up 
to it is clear of dangers.'f 

The German Commercial Society of Oceania possess a factory which is 
-situated about a mile S.E. of Eegent point, near Tonoi point ; the building 
is painted white and has a flagstafi* erected near it. 

Regent point is in lat. 16^ 43' 44" S., long. 151° 26' 00" W. 

Buoys. — ^Two buoys belonging to the Commercial Society are moored 
opposite their establishment. 

DJTater. — The best watering place is in a small bay S.W. of Taoru 
island, about 1^ miles from the anchorage. Small craft can go alongside 
a factory, situated at the head of the bay ; from whence the water can be 
drawn with about 160 feet of hose.* 

Supplies. — Fresh meat, fish, and vegetables can be obtained. 

Passage. — ^There is a passage out of Uturoa harbour to the north-west- 
ward, inside the reefs, round to Ohamaneno and thence to sea. In 1873 
H.M.S. Cameleon made use of this channel, with the aid of a native pilot ; 
the least water obtained was 8 fathoms, and that only once. The passage 
through the reef to the westward is opposite a Mr. Hunter's plantation, 
having an island with cocoanut trees and brushwood on the right, and a 
small low sandy islet on the left. The pilot appeared to steer by eye 



* Paris Notice Hydrograpbiqne, No. 20 of 1884. 
f See plan on chart, No. 526. 



to proceed from Teavarua to Tahaa. It is 1 J cables wide at the narrowest 
part, and prcseuttt no difficulties if there is a beacon, or other mark, at the 
cxti'eme point of the great reef ; without some such mark it is not advisable 
to une the pass unless the banks are clearly visible. In 1883 the bescon 
consisted of a heap of coral ahout 5 feet high.f 

TAHAA lies about 2 miles northward of Baiaiea, and i.s situated 
within the same reef, it is about half the size of Baiatea, and not ao fertile. 
The highest peak is 1,9GS feet high. 

Small islands surround it, the pass^es between which are encumbered 
with reefs. 

There are two passes through the surrounding reef into the enclosed 
bnsins, that of Toahotu on the eastern side, and Faipai pass on the south- 
w<^st side of the island. 

ToahotU pass, l i cables brood, is deep and clear of dangers, and 
may bii recognised by the two islets, Mahea and Toahotu, on th,e reefs on 
eiiher side. 

Inside and nearly opposite this pass is Ohamene bay, where good 
ancliorago may bo obtained in from 16 to 25 fathoms. 

Tahaa, tlie principal village, is situated on the south-east point of the 
island about 2 miles south of Ohamene bay, and good an el lo rage maybe 
obtained ofi it in from 16 to 22 fathoms, mud, goo<l holding ground. 

The best anchorage is in the direction of the prolongation of the pier 
with Toamnro point in lin<! willi Fatu Fatu, a low rock}- islet to the south- 
ward of the \'il!iigo. Nearer i'atu-FntTi the holding ground is not so good.| 

The village may bo recognised by a church and flagstaff. 

Faipai pass on the south-west side of the island is IJ, cables broad 
and hiilf a mile long in a N. by E. direction, and is deep and clear of dangers. 
Aiiclionige niiiy be ohiaincd inside the pass in Hnrepili bay in from 20 to 
2.") fiilboms. 

• Ciimnuiiiilor II. A. Mftinwnriiig, II.M.S. Cimchon, 1873. 
t r.iHB Nolicc IlydroRnipliiiiiiu, No. 20 of 1884. 



CHAP. II.] TAHAA. — OTEA-VANUA HARBOUR. 55 

BOLABOLA or BORABORA lies about 7 miles north-west 
of Tabaa. Tbe reef surrounding tbe island is covered with islets, much 
larger than those on tbe reef surrounding Baiatea and Tahaa, but do not 
extend more than 1^ miles from tbe shore, except on the S.W. side, where 
they project for nearly 3^ miles, forming a dangerous spit, which breaks 
heavily. 

Bolabola is distinguished by a very lofty double peaked mountain in the 
centre, and is generally more craggy than the rest of the Society islands. 
The eastern side has a barren appearance, the western is more fertile, a 
low plain which surrounds the whole, together with the islands on the 
reef are productive and populous. 

Otea-Vanua harbour, situated on the south-west side, is well 
sheltered and commodious, and affords anchorage in 20 fathoms.* 

The church is in lat. 16° 30' S., long. 151° 42' W. 

The entrance through the reef is 2 cables wide and steep-to on either 
side. 

For entering bring mount Paia to bear E. by S. and steer in on that 
course, which will lead through in mid-channel, until near Maclean point, 
when alter course for McEvers point, and anchor as convenient off the 
village. 

A shoal extends for 4 cables, off the N.E. end of Marion island, in the 
direction of Maclean point, which therefore renders it necessary to keep 
nearer the north shore, which may be approached with safety to about 
one cable. The edges of the reefs are clearly visible, but with strong N.W. 
winds tbe sea breaks right across the entrance, rendering it difficult to 
distinguish the channel ; and at such times it is unadvisable to enter without 
a pilot or good local knowledge. 

Pilots may be obtained if desired ; they bring a copy of the port 
regulations with them. 

- TUBAI or MOTU-ITI consists of several small and low islands 
connected by a reef, situated about 13 miles northward of Bolabola. 
Turtle are said to abound here, and the island is much resorted to by the 
natives of the neighbouring islands for fishing purposes. 

The north point of the reef is in lat. IG'^ 11' S., long. 151° 45' W. 

M ARU A or M AUPITI lies 23 miles westward of Bolabola, it 
is a small and comparatively elevated island, about 6 miles in circumference, 
and the highest point is nearly 800 feet above the sea. 

Marua is surrounded by a barrier reef, at a distance of about 3 miles, 
which encloses numerous small islets covered with cocoanut trees. 



* See plaxL on sheet No. 526. 



-56 SOCIETY ISLANDS. [chai.it. 

The entrance to the lagoon formed by the reefs which surround the 
island, is between two small low islets, covered with trees, which bear 
S.S.E. from a very remarkable perpendicular rocky blufF, 700 feet high, 
reseml'ing the ruins of a gigantic castle, on the south side of the island. 
The cl:£:nnel between the islets is narrow and winding, and at first sight 
the sea seems to break right across the entrance ; but when about half a 
•mile from the reef, and by bringing the west extreme of the eastern islet shut 
in to the northward of the east extreme of the western islet, the passage 
between the reefs will be seen. Care is necessary on account of rollers 
and strong currents at the entrance.* 

In February 1884 the French war-vessel Volage, 164 feet in length, 
entered the lagoon under unfavourable circumstances of weather and sea. 
• The wind was fresh from E.N.E. and a heavy easterly swell. The entrance 
seemed quite barred until bearing N. J E., when a narrow strip of broken 
water was distinguished, which had the appearance of deep water, between 
two banks of foam. The most difficult part of the channel is at the entrance, 
where it is narrowest, and the current so strong that whirlpools and eddies 
are formed, which require great care in navigating, and therefore a good 
speed should be preserved. The channel through the reef runs first 
N. I E., until west of the southern part of Motu-Te-Iti-Ahe, when it turns 
to the N. by W. The current always runs out. The Volage anchored with 
the following bearings : — S.E, point of Motu-Te-Ili-Ahe, South ; north 
point of Motu.T6-Apaha S.E. by S. | S.f 

The centre of the island is in lat. 16° 26' S., long. 152° 8' W. 

MOFELIA (MOPIHA) or HOWE ISLANDS, are 

reported by Captain Scheibner of the German Navy, commanding the 
barque Unkel Breasig, 1875, to lie in latitude 16° 52' S., longitude 154° 0' W. 
(approximate). 

These islands are situated on a reef, through which there is no entranco, 
10 miles long north and south, and 4 miles broad. 

They are frequented by fishermen for the purpose of catching turtle. 

8CILLY ISLANDS are a group of small low islands reported by 
Captain Scheibner to lie in latitude 16° 31' S., longitude 154^ 43' W. 
(approximate).} 

These islands lie on a circular reef 6 or 7 miles in diameter, and into 
which there is no passage. 
They are inhabited. 



♦ Navigating Lieutenant G. D. Lee, H.M.S. Turquoise, 1880. 

t Paris Notice Hydrographiqne, No. 19 of 1884. 

J Berlin, Annalen der Hydrographie, Heft V. of 1876. 



CHAP.n.] MOPELIA. — ^BELLINGSHAUSEN ISLAND. 57 

Current. — ^Between Mopiha and Scilly islands the Unkel Breasig 
•experienced a current of 11 miles in 24 hours to windward, the wind at the 
time being N.N.E. force 7 to 8. 

BELLINGSHAUSEN ISLAND is a low coral uninhabited 
island, of triangular form and covered with vegetation, in lat. 15° 48' S., 
long. 154° 25> W. The reef is steep to all round, and has a number of 
large boulders on it. About a dozen cocoa-nut trees show conspicuously 
above the others. There is no opening into the lagoon but the tide flows 
into it over the reef. 

Landing may be eifected in fine weather on the W.N.W. side. 



68 



CHAPTER IIL 

Easter islai^d.— Saia-y-gomez islanb. — ^Patjmotu or 

low archipelago. 



Valuation in 1885. 



Easter island - 
Manga Reva - 



11°32'E. 
8° 30' E. 



Anaa islands - - 7^ 40' E. 
Disappointment islands 6° 50' E. 



EASTER ISLAND. 



EASTER ISLAND or BAFA NUI, was discovered by 
Roggewein on Easter Sunday 1721. Cook and La Perouse both visited 
the island, which was subsequently surveyed by Captain Beechey, H.M.S. 
Blossom^ in 1825. The visits of Commodore R. A.Powell, H.M.S. TopazCy 
in 1868, and Commander Bouverie F. Clark, H.M.S. Sappho^ in 1882, 
have furnished us with more complete particulars, from which most of the 
following remarks have been derived.* 

This island is of much interest on account of the wonderful images 
sculptured out of the lava by the former inhabitants ; and being in such 
an isolated position, 2,030 miles from the coast of Chile and 1,500 from the 
nearest inhabited island, except Pitcairn island, the problem as to how it 
became inhabited has not yet been solved. Until the visit of the Sapphoy 
it was generally supposed from the traditions of the natives that their 
ancestors had originally come in a large canoe from Rapa island, which is 
1,900 miles to the westward, and therefore right against the usual trade 
wind ; tut Mr. Alexander Salmon, the agent for the Maison Brander 
of Tahiti, who speaks the native language fluently, was able to furnish 
Commander Clark with more reliable information than was probably 
obtained previously. The result of Mr. Salmon's repeated talks with the 
natives on the subject of their first arrival on the island, was to find that they 
all said they originally came from the East in two canoes provisioned with 



* See Admiralty plan of Easter island on chart No. 1386. 



•€HAP..jn;] .EASTER ISLAND. 59 

jams, taiOf and sweet potatoes. The king (by name '^ Hotu-metua " or the 
<^ Prolific Father ") in one canoe, and the queen in the other. On making 
the island they separated, passing round in opposite directions and meeting 
again at Anakena on the north side, where they landed, and settled on 
Mount Topaze, the native name of which is Hotu-iti. They there built 
the stone houses, the remains of which still exist, and made the statues 
with which the hill is covered ; but the first statue was not made until 
some fifty years after they landed. The original native name for the island 
was Te-pito-fenua ; i.e,y the land in the middle of the sea. 

In 1863, some Peruvian vessels arrived off the island, arid carried a 
number of the inhabitants away lo work on their guano islands ; in the 
following year some Roman Catholic missionaries settled in the island to 
protect and civilize the remainder, who only numbered about 1,500, and 
have since been slowly decreasing, so that when the Topaze visited the 
island in 1867 only 900 remained. 

In 1878, the Maison Brander, an English firm at Tahiti, who had pre- 
viously been trading to the island for some years, and had removed about 
500 of the inhabitants to work on their sugar plantations at Tahiti, pur- 
chased the property of the missionaries on Easter island, who then went 
with about 300 of the natives to the Gambier archipelago ; so that at the 
time of the Sappho's visit there were only about 150 inhabitants left. 

Th^ natives somewhat resemble the Marquesans, being of a light com- 
plexion, and considered by some people to be a handsome race. There is 
no trace left now of the missionaries' work, the few remaining inhabitants 
having no religion at all ; they are expert thieves, very revengeful, and 
never forget or forgive a blow, although generally good-tempered. They 
are divided into several small clans, amongst which strength or personal 
courage is the only claim to superiority, and their chief quarrels arise over 
the efforts of each clan to secure the first eggs of the " wide-awake " every 
year from Needle rock, to which they attach a superstitious value. 

A large grazing farm has been established by the Maison Brander, 
who have bought up the greater part of the island, and in 1882 there were 
about 10,000 sheep and 400 head of cattle on the island ; the flocks increase 
.very rapidly as there are two, and sometimes three, lambing seasons in the 
year. Enormous numbers of poultry breed on the island, and are in a 
semi-wild state, but all owned by the natives. 

The great stone busts or images which are scattered over the island in 
great numbers are most remarkable ; they vary in height from 5 to 37 feet, 
but are usually 15 to 18 feet high. They are all cut out of a gray compact 
lava found in the crater of Hotu-iti, at the east end of the island, where 
"there are still many in an unfinished state. Their shape is the human 
trunk, terminating at the hips, the arms close to the sides, the hands sculp* 



60 EASTEB ISLAND. :{chap. m. 

tured in low relief and clasping the hips. The head is flat, and the top 
of the forehead cut off level, so as to allow the crown, which is made of red 
tuff found in the Te Rano Eao crater, to be pnt on. The fiice is square, 
massive, and sternly disdainful in exproFsion, the aspect always upwards. 

Easter island is volcanic, and has numerous extinct craters rising from 
different parts of the island, none of which have been active for a long 
time. 

The island is triangular in shape, and about 29 miles in circumference ; 
from the south-west point to cape Koggewein (the south-east extreme) is 
12 miles ; from thence to North cape 9 miles, and from North cape to the 
south-west point, 8 miles. The highest part is a crater near North cape, 
called La Perouse mountain or Bana Hana Kana, which is 1,767 feet high. 
All the hills are smooth and rounded, and there are no trees on the island. 

The coast is rocky, and there are only two or three sandy beaches in all 
its extent. On the north and south sides the land is high and precipitous, 
allowing of no landing except at a snug little cove on the north shore, 
called Anakena. 

Near the south-west cape is the largest crater, called Te Bano Kao, 1,327 
feet high, and descending inside for 600 or 700 feet, where it i« 2^ miles in 
circumference. At the bottom of thib crater is a small lake, covered with 
a thick carpet of decayed and matted vegetable matter, which in most 
places is strong enough to bear the weight of a man, and even cattle have 
crossed occasionally. Mr. Salmon states that he has failed to obtain bottom 
in this lake with 50 fathoms of line. 

Mount Topaze or Hotu-iti is another isolated extinct crater about 680 
feet high, situated in the south-east part of the island ; and from the gray 
lava of which its sides are composed all the images have been made. 

Off the south-west point at distances of 2 and 4 cables respectively are 
two rocks, Mutu Raukau or Needle rnck and Mutu Nui or Flat rock, with 
deep water between them and the ma'n island. The Sappho made use of 
the inner passage on her way to Cook bay, and reported them both clear of 
dangers. 

Cook bay or Hanga Roa on the west coast, is a small bay, about 
one mile wide between Cook point and Punta Roa, and affords good 
anchorage from October to April, the season of the trades ; but during the 
remainder of the year is often a lee shore. H.M.S. /S'ajo/?Ao anchored in 
14 fathoms, with the village bearing E. by S., and Punta Roa S. by W. ; 
but vessels are recommended to anchor outside the 16 fathom line, as inside 
that depth the bottom is extremely hard, and nearer the shore there are 
lars^e boulders.* 



* See plan of Cook bay on sheet No. 1386. 



CHAP.nrJ SALA-Y-GOMBZ ISLAKD. 61 

The landing in this bay is not very good, the water being shallow inshore 
with a rocky bottom, but it is quite safe in fine weather. 

The observation place at the mission house in Cook bay is in lat. 
27° l(y S., long. 109° 26' W. 

Hanga Piko, the bay next to the southward of Cook bay, affords 
excellent landing; but the channel in between the rocks is rather narrow, 
and with any swell on, the breakers are rather alarming ; however it never 
breaks right across, except in a gale, 2md the passage has been improved 
by the officers of the Sappho, who blew up a rock which jutted into the 
channel on the south side. 

Supplies. — ^Beef, mutton, and poultry can be easily obtained ; the sheep, 
averaging 60 lbs. in weight, costing 3 dollars each. Vegetables at present 
are rather scarce at short notice, but as yams, sweet potatoes, bananas and 
plantains grow in abundance, they can be obtained in time. 

Water is scarce, except at the bottoms of the craters, and at a well of 
excellent water on the hill at the back of the mission house in Cook bay, 
called Puna-Pau or " the unfailing well." 

It is a curious fact, that whenever there is a heavy swell on the west side 
of the island, the water rises in the well, although remaining perfectly 
fresh. 

Winds. — From October to April, the S.E. trade is constant at Easter 
sland, blowing strong at the commencement and termination. There are 
occasional showers during the trade. From April to October the weather 
is variable, westerly winds prevailing when there is a good deal of rain. 

Thunder and lightning are appai-ently unknown. 

Tides. — It is high water at full and change at Ohrs. 39m., rise of tide 
about 6 feet. 

S ALA- Y- GOMEZ ISLAND. 

SALA-Y-GOMEZ was discovered in 1793 by the Spanish com- 
mander of that name, and was again visited by the Spaniards in 1805.* 

The island is of less extent than was formerly supposed, being scarcely 
more than a heap of stones, less than half a mile long, in a N.W. and S.E. 
direction and a fifth of a mile wide, and in a gale of wind would hardly be 
distinguishable amidst the spray ; the highest part at the S.E. end is 98 feet 
high. The rocks, except such parts which the sea birds frequent, are of a 
dark brown colour. 

Some sunken rocks lie off the N.E. and S.E. points. 

The N.W. point is in lat. 26"" 27' 41" S., long. 105° 28' W. (approxi- 
mate). 

* See plan on sheet No. 1386. 



6a PAUMOTTJ OR LOW AKCHIPELAGK), [chif. irr. 

Tid6S.-^Ifc is high water at full and chapge at 4 hrs., rise of tide about 
4 feet. 

Scott reef. — in 1855 Captain H. Scott, of the British barque Dmidy 
reported that a dangerous patch of breakers existed about 5 mile? !N^.N.E. 
of Sala-y-Gomez. 

Captain J. E. Lopez, commanding the Chilian corvette (yiKggms in 
1875, reported that he sounded in the position assigned to Scott reef, but 
obtained no bottom at 465 fathoms. A reefy however, on which the ■ sea 
breaks was found to lie about one mile N.E; ^>N.of Sala-j'^omez, and -this 
position has been accepted for that of Scott reef. 

This reef is 100 yards long, east and west, and 50 yards broad, with 16 to 
19 fathoms- close around, increasing to 40 fathoms at 2\ cables distance, 
except in the direction of the island, between which and the reef there are 
depths of 16 to 33 fathoms. 



PAUMOTU OR LOW ARCHIPELAGO.* 

This vast group of coral islands extends over fifteen degrees of longitude, 
not taking into consideration the detached islands to the south-eastward. 
The islands are all similar in character and exhibit great sameness in their 
features. 

From the extent of the archipelago and the character of the islands 
composing it, they have been discovered by various navigators, whose 
voyages have extended over a very long series of years. 

The first who- gave any notice of their existence was Quiros the Spanish 
navigator who, in 1606, saw several islands on the north and south sides of 
the group. Le Maire and Schouten in 1616 discovered several islands in 
the north part, and Roggewein also passed the north part in 1722. Sub- 
sequently to this Bougainville (1763), Byron (1765), Wallis and Carteret 
(1787), Cook (1769, 1773, 1774), Bonecheo (1772-1774), Edwards (1791), 
Bligh (1792), Wilson (1797), and Turnbull in 1803 have all made additions 
to the history of discovery. 

More exact observations were then made by Kotzebue (1816), Belling- 
hausen (1819), and Duperrey (1823). 

Beechy (1826), Fitz-Roy (1835), and Wilkes (1841) have given more 
accurate details ; since that period the French have made many observa- 
tions as to their position and character, and from them we derive many of 
the subsequent details. 



* See Admiralty charts : — ^Pacific ocean, general, No. 2683. Pacific oceaiij 'S.E.* 
sheet, No. 783. Paumotu or Low archipelago, No. 767. Gambler islands, No. 1112, 
and Hao island, No. 1111. 



caw^.ui.] GSKBRAL RBMAitiKSj-^^WINDS, 63 

Xh&inh^kbJtoQtoaii^ii^ aUrof .the fi^ resemble ilie Fijians 

in figure and the darkness of their skins; others more resemble the 
Tahitiansy but have a more warlike disposition, and apparently speak a 
different diftlect of the Polynesian li^oguage to that of Tahiti. 

The greater part of these natives are reported to be ' honest aiid trust- 
worthy, in- the western ^pirt they are nearly all^ -converted to the Protestant 
religion. The French Roman Catholics have an establishment in Anaa 
and another at Manga Reva. 

The istoflers navigate ambngst the* different groups, but the most 
venturesome are those belonging to Anaa or Chain island. The vessels are 
dbtibie canoes about 85 feet long, connectied by a strong framework, which 
hoist two mat sails on separate masts. 

The trade of these islands is carried on by merchants of Tahiti, who 
are principally English and American, and the commerce is greater than 
was previously suppc^ed. Owing to the steady cultivation of cocoanut 
trees, a great increase in the value of copra has taken place of late years ; 
this and pearl shell are the principal articles of trade. 

Of the 78 islands composing the group, 18 are uninhabited, they are all 
coralline or lagoon reefs with three exceptions, and a few have entrances 
for large vessels. 

The whole of this group, with the exception of Ducie, Henderson, Pit- 
cairn, and Geno islands are under French protection. 

WINDS. — ^These islands lie within the verge of the regular trade wind, 
which generally blows with considerable regularity throughout the breadth of 
the Pacific, but from some cause not satisfactorily accounted for, the land small 
in area and inconsiderable in height has such an influence that it interrupts 
altogether the regularity of the easterly direction, not only does the 
easterly wind fail, but heavy squalls come from the opposite direction, and 
more frequently by night than by day. This is especially the case from 
November to March. 

The effect of the prevalent south-westerly gales in the high latitudes in 
sending a heavy sea which is felt many hundred miles from the place 
whence it proceeds, occasions a serious obstacle to landing upon these low 
islands, by rolling in on the shore in an opposite direction to the trade 
wind, and therefore making it more dangerous to land upon the lee side of 
the islands than on the weather. 

In September 1877 and February 1878 two hurricanes occurred among 
the islands of the Low archipelago. They are the first on record, and are 
reported to have caused much damage among the Manihi or Waterland 
islands, Ejng--0«orge^ islands, Kaukura or Aura islands, Fakarava or 
Wittgenstein island, and Anaa or Chain island ; the sea is reported to have 



64 PATJMOTU OB LOW ABCHIPBLAGO. [chap. m. 

washed completely across Niau or Greig island, destroying nearly all the 
inhabitants. 

TIDES. — ^In most of the entrances to the harbours in these islands 
there is a strong tidal stream which sets in and out alternatively about 6 
hours each way, the tide rises about 2 feet. It is high water, full and change, 
about I hour among the western groups, and from half to one hour later 
among those to the south-eastward. 

CUBBIiNTS. — ^As might be supposed, among such a large mass of 
islands the currents are some^vhat irregular, but during settled weather and 
a steady south-east trade wind, the surface water generally moves westward 
from o to 25 miles a day ; in the rainy season from October to March, when 
westerly winds, squalls, and rains are frequent, the currents vary most, and 
occasionally set to the eastward from one half to 2 miles an hour. 

To the south-eastward of the Paumotu group lie some islands, which 
although beyond its limits, belong to no other system, and will therefore 
be first described. 

DUCIE ISLAND, in lat. 24° 40' S., long. 124° 48' W., was dis- 
covered by Captain Edwards in 1791. It is of coral formation and oval 
form, lying in a north-east and south-west direction, ond is If miles long 
and one mile wide. 

There is a lagoon in the interior, partly enclosed by trees and partly by 
low coral flats scarcely above the water's edge ; this lagoon appears deep 
and has a boat entrance which can be used when the sea is sufficiently 
smooth to allow a boat to pass over the bar. 

The height of the soil above the water is about 12 feet, and the trees 
about 14 feet more, making the greatest elevation 26 feet above the sea. 

No living things but birds were seen on the island, and great numbers of 
fish and sharks abound in the vicinity. 

In 1882 the hull of a large vessel was lying on the N.W, side, which 
proved to be that of the Arcadiay wrecked there in June 1881. Though 
the wind was from the north, force 4, a boat was enabled to land on the 
north side, but it was necessary to wade as the coral beach runs out 
shallow. A sandy ridge extending right across the bar, with a heavy surf, 
blocked the entrance into the lagoon. 

Breakers extended fur at least half a mile to the southward of the 
island.* 

HENDERSON or ELIZABETH ISLAND, in lat.24° 21 8., 

long. 128° 19' W., was discovered by a boat's crew from the whaler 
£ssex, which was wrecked in 1820 ; and was afterwards seen by Captain 

* Remark Book, Lieutenant H. Pearson, H.M.S. Sappho, 1882. 



xjHAp.ni.] DTJCIE ISLAND. — PITOAIRN ISLAND. 65 

fienderson. According to Captain Beechey, the island is 5 miles long, 
one mile wide, and has a flat surface nearly 80 feet above the sea. On all 
«ides excepting the north it is bounded by perpendicular cliffs about 50 feet 
high, composed entirely of dead coral, which are considerably undermined 
by the action of the waves. 

Landing is extremely difficult on account of the heavy sea rolling in on 
the coral ledges. 

PITC AIRN ISLAND.— This island, which is an English settle- 
ment, was discovered and named by Carteret in 1767, but he gave an 
erroneous idea of its dimensions. Pitcairn derives its interest from being 
associated with the celebrated mutiny of the Bounty in 1789, the details 
of which are well known.* 

After the mutineers had set Captain Bligh and the rest of the crew 
adrift on April 26th, 1789, they bore away in the Bounty for Tahiti, but 
they reached Tubuai, and this was the only intelligence gained of them as 
they were obliged to leave on account of warfare with the natives; they 
then went to Tahiti where Christian, after some of the party had landed, 
cut the cable and put to sea, and was not heard of for many years ; it was 
afterwards discovered that the Bounty had been run ashore at Pitcairn 
. island and burnt by Christian and his followers. Captain Mayhew Folger 
touched at Pitcairn island in February 1808, to procure seals (supposing 
the island to be uninhabited, from the account given by Carteret), and for 
the first time discovered some of the crew of the Bounty, As proofs of 
his discovery, he obtained an azimuth compass and a time piece which had 
belonged to that vessel, the former was sent to the Admiralty in 1813, and 
nearly about the same time Vice-Admiral Dixon sent intelligence of their 
existence to Europe, H.M.S. Briton having touched at the island on 
September 17tli, 1814. 

The island has since been frequently visited and described, and it has 
also been proved that the Bounty* s crew were not the first inhabitants, for 
several burial places have been discovered containing skeletons, h;iving a 
pearl shell (not found on the island) placed under the head ; stone hatchets 
and other warlike implements were also among the remains. 

The community having been gradually getting too numerous for the 
capabilities of the island to support them, it was necessary that son e 
important measure should be adopted for their relief. This came in the 
o£Rer of Norfolk island as a gift, which was accepted, and in June 1856 
the whole of the descendants of the mutineers of the Bounty, numbering 
192, were conveyed there in the transport Morayshire. 



* See Admiralty plan of Pitcairn island. No. 1113. 
u 16615. E 



66 PAtJMOTU OR LOW ARCHIPELAGO. [chap.hi. 

For the benefit of future visitors, a bull and nine cows were left on 
Pitcairn island, but all the pigs were destroyed. 

In December 1859 two families, numbering 16 people, returned to 
Pitcairn island, in the brig Mary Ann, as they did not like their new home 
so well as the old one. They found the island abounding in live stock, 
goats and fowls innumerable, sheep, and 52 cattle ; . the latter .they unwisely 
destroyed. 

In February 1864, 24 more people returned from Norfolk island; and 
in July 1884 the population numbered 130. 

Pitcairn island is about 2 miles long east and west and one mile broad ; 
the entire circuit of the island with one or two exceptions is perpendicular 
and will not admit of landing. The highest part being about 1,000 feet 
renders it visible 40 miles distant. The island is thickly clothed to the 
summit with most luxuriant verdure, terminating in lofty cliffs, skirted at 
their bases with thickly branching evergreens. The coast presents unsur- 
mouutable obstacles to landing, except at Bounty bay on the north-east 
side, and a place on the west side of the island, which latter is a good one 
with winds from the eastwardw 

The soil of the island is very rich, but porous, a great proportion is 
decomposed lava, the remainder, a rich black earth. 

Sometimes water becomes scarce, as there are no springs on the island ; 
but generally there is plenty of rain, so the island is very fertile. 

Bounty bay is the place where vessels usually communicate with 
the shore, but landing in ships' boats is dangerous and the islanders' 
boats are nearly always used. Adamstown is situated to the westward 
of Bounty bay, and according to Captain Beechey is in lat. 25° 3' 30" S., 
long. 130° 8' 30" W. 

Supplies. — The animals are sheep, hogs, goats, and poultry. 

Vegetables consist of yams, sweet and Irish potatoes, the api root and 
taro in small quantities. 

Fruits are plantains, pines, melons, oranges, bread fruit, sugar cane, 
limes and the vi or Brazilian plum. 

The food of the islanders consists mainly of yams and potatoes, animal 
food occasionally, fish is scarce. Wearing apparel is obtained from whale 
ships in exchange for vegetables, &c. 

One of the inhabitants writing in December 1883 says: "At present 
'* and for the last few years there is scarcely a month that we do not see a 
" ship ; sometimes three or four a week. Since the beginning of Sep- 
" tember we have had rain steadily with hardly eight fine days." 

Winds. — No regular trade winds, in the summer months the wind 
prevails mostly from E.S.E. to North. Northerly winds are generally 
lio-ht, often accompanied with rain or fog, from north the wind invariably 



CHAP*m.] PITOAIRN ISIiAKD. — OENO ISLANl). 67 

goes round to the westward, from which quarter and S.E. are the strongest 
gales; when the wind is S.W. the weather is generally clear with moderate 
breezes. During the winter season the prevailing winds are from S.W. 
to E.8.E. 

Current. — ^There is generally a westerly current running past the 
island which is frequently strong. 

Temporary anchorage. — in 1^84 H.M.S. Constance anchored 
in 17^ fathoms, sand, abont half a mile from the shore, with the following 
bearings : — St. Paul's point just open eastward of Adams rock S.S.E. ; 
Young's rock W. J N. Hitherto vessels have almost invariably laid off 
and on, and it ha^ been considered injudicious to anchor except in the 
case of being set on in a calm, the bottom being reported foul. 

OENO ISLAND, lying 65 miles N.W. by N. of Pitcairn island, 
in lat. 24*^ 1' S., long. 130° 41' W., is low and dangerous; coral reef com- 
pletely surrounds the lagoon, near the centre of which is a small island 
covered with shrubs, and towards the northern extremity are two sandy 
islets a few feet above water. The lagoon is fordable as far as the wooded 
island, but in other places appeared 2 or 3 fathoms deep. Landing is 
extremely dangerous, if practicable. 

The American clipper Wildioave, Captain Knowles, was totally wrecked 
on this reef in April 1 858. 

MINERVA or EBRILL REEF,— Upon which it was assumed 
that the ship Sir George Grey wa? lost, in 1865, was searched for on the 
parallels assigned to it in 1880, by H.M.S. Alert between 22° 32' S. and 
22° 45' S., and meridians 133° 20' W. and 134° W. The search was made 
between the 19th and 21st of July 1880, the weather was bright and clear, 
and a heavy swell running. Several no bottom casts of the lead were 
made, with from 180 to 380 fathoms of line, and two depths were obtained 
of 1,775 and 1,275 fathoms, in lat. 22"" 34' S., long. 132° 42' W., and lat. 
22° 30' S., long. 134° 10' W., respectively. 

As no breakers were observed, or shoal ground found, this reported 
danger has been expunged from the Admiralty charts. 

Winds and Weather. — Exceptionally severe weather, accom- 
panied with strong north-west winds, was experienced by H.M.S. Alert 
towards the end of July 1880, southward of, and in the vicinity of the 
Paumotu or Low archipelaizo. It was afterwards ascertained, that at about 
the same time similar winds and weather were prevailing as far westward 
in the South Pacific as Tahiti. 

PORTLAND REEF was discovered by H.M.S. Portland on 
23rd May 1853, the bottom was distinctly seen and soundings of 7, 13, 
and 15 fathoms obtained, and less water was thought to exist. The shoal 

E 2 



^8 PAUMOTU OB LOW ABOHIPELAGO. [chap. ni. 

■appeared about 4J miles in diameter, and from the centre of it Manga 
Heva bore N. 50° W. distant 40 miles. The position given is lat. 23° 39' S., 
long. 134° 2V W.* The French vessel of war Lamothe Piquet searched 
-unsuccessfully for this danger in 1868, and the people at Manga Reva 
Icnew nothing of its existence. 

TIMOE or CRESCENT ISLAND, the south extreme of 
which is in lat. 23" 20' S., long. 134° 29' W., is the south-eastern of the 
Paumotu archipelago, it is 3^ miles in length and 1^ miles wide, and of 
similar formation to Oeno and Ducie islands. Tt consists of a strip of 
<coral about 100 yards wide about 2 feet above water enclosing a lagoon. 
Upon this strip of coral are several small Islands (the highest about 6 feet 
above the sea) covered with trees nearly 20 feet high. Landing appeared 
impossible on account of the heavy surf. The island is uninhabited. 

MANGA REVA or GAMBIER ISLANDS were dis- 

-cavered by Captain Wilson, in the ship Duff^ May 25th, 1797, and named 
T)y him after Admiral Lord Gambier. The group consists of an encircling 
r'coral reef of an irregular triangular form, enclosing five large, and numerous 
smaller islands. They are of some importance to the navigator, inasmuch 
as they afford a supply of water ; the only source, except Pitcairn island, 
between Tahiti and Peru or Chilcf 

The principal island called Manga Reva or Peard island is situated near 
the centre of the group, and mount Duff; the highest point, 1,315 feet, is 
near the southern part of the island. The other high islands are called 
Aka Maru or Wainwright island, Au-Kena or Elson island, Tara-Vai or 

Belcher island, Aga-Kauitai island, Makaroa or Marsh island, Kamaka or 
Oollie island, Manui island, and Maka-pu island. 

Manga Eeva island is about 4 miles in length, N.E. and S.W., and 
mount Duff rises into two peaks in the form of wedges, very conspicuous 

at a distance, and visible about 45 miles. All the islands are steep and 
Tugged, particularly Makaroa island, which at a distance resembles a ship. 

The external form of these islands conveys at once an impression of their 
■^'olcanic origin, the surrounding reef is conspicuously contrasted to the 

islands, the coral is fast growing up in the lagoon, and on the north-east 
rside already bears a fertile soil, with trees and habitations. In the opposite 

direction the reef dips 5 to 7 fathoms below the surface, affording an 

entrance to the lagoon within. The outer side of the reef springs firom a 

very great depth, the inner descends with a slope to 20 or 26 fathoms. 
In 1871 the population numbered 936, and the island is one of the chief 

Roman Catholic mission stations in the South Pacific. 



* Remark book of Mr. E. Bowe, master H.M.S. Portland, 1853. 

t See Admiralty plan of Manga Beya or Grambier islands. No. 1,112. 



CHAP. III.] MANGA REVA OR GAMBIER ISLANDS. 6& 

The group consists of eight high islands, surrounded by coral islets and 
reefs, enclosing a lagoon, in which are several secure anchorages ; there 
are however many coral heads, which renders a good look-out from aloft 
necessary, and even the precaution of keeping a boat ahead. 

As these islands afford a supply of water only, the anchorage under 
mount Duff is most convenient. 

Opposite the south-east point of Manga Reva or Peard island is a channel 
about one cable wide, betweeg the shore reef and the end of a long narrow 
reef projecting from the western end of Au-Kena. The southern end is- 
marked by two buoys, and a beacon has been erected in the middle of the 
eastern side of Manga lieva as a mark to steer, for. This channel leads into- 
a roadstead called port Eikitea, which is large enough to accommodate a 
number of vessels. From the shore reef, which forms the western side of the 
port, the depth increases to 25 fathoms and then shoals towards the coral 
heads and banks which form the eastern side. The bottom is mud and coral, 
and the depth rather great for anchoring ; the holding ground also is not 
always good, depending on the slope of the bottom. 

Anchorage in port Rikitea during easterly winds is good, but only mode- 
rate during those from the westward ; good shelter is afforded, but the depths- 
are very irregular, as close to 1 1 fathoms there may be only one or 2 fathoms, 
so that on the whole, it is not safe for vessels drawing over 13 feet ; still,^. 
in a calm, and in case of necessity, a larger vessel might at slack water 
be hauled in ; slack water should be chosen, for at certain times of the tide 
the current is strong and variable, and the width, in places, not over 160' 
feet, so that there is no room for turning. 

There are three passages into the lagoon, on the south-east, south- west, 
and west sides, which, by attending to the following directions, may be 
used with safety. 

For entering by the western channel the best mark is the peak of Aka- 
Maru island, midway between Tara-Vai and Manga Reva islands bearing 
E.S.E. southerly, and when mount Duff bears N.N. E. ^. E. a beacon on Au- 
Kena will be seen in line with a belvedere on the S.W. point of the same 
island, which, kept inline on an E. by N. ?r N. bearing, leads between the 
coral reefs until the beacon on the east side of Manga Reva is seen 
between the buoys in the channel leading into port Rikitea, bearing 
N. by W. ^ W. By keeping the beacon on this bearing a safe entrance 
may be made into the port, between the buoys, and anchorage picked up a^ 
requisite. 

The village is on the east side of Peard island, and north-eastward of 
mount Duff. The flagstaff is in lat. 23° T 34" S., long. 135° 0' 20'' W. 

According to Captain Beechey the best channel to enter by lies on the 
south-eastern side of the group, to the southward of all the coral islands,. 



70 PATJMOTU OE LOW ABCHIPELA60. [chaf.ih, 

and with mount Duff bearing N.W. | N. in line wiUi the S.W. point 
of Maka-pu ifeland off the south end of Aka-Maru. With these marks steer 
over the reef, upon which there is at this part 6 fathoms water, and 
pass close to the southern extreme of Maka-pu island, then keeping a boat 
ahea<l, proceed under easy sail for the anchorage south of mount DoiT. 
In this situation a ship will be abreast of two streams of good water, but 
there is some difficulty in procuring it, on account of the coral ledges 
which surround the island. There are several other anchorages, and 
water may also be had on the southern side of Au-Kena island, but the 
above appears to be on the whole most convenient. If intending to pro- 
ceed into the port on the eastern side of Manga Rova island, cross the reef 
aft above mentioned, steering for mount Duff^ on a N.W. | N. course until 
the l)cacon on the east side of Manga Reva island bears N. by W. \ W. 
hctWG^m the buoys on either side of the channel leading into port Rikitea, 
which mark will lead clear of all dangers until inside the port, when anchor- 
age may be picked up as desired. 

I'he best passage to sail out at bears about S.S.W. from mount Duff^ 
with the eastern bluffs of Manga Reva island in line N.N.E. \ E. This 
mark will lead over the reef in 6 J fathoms. Although this channel lies to 
leeward of the group, there is generally a very heavy swell on the^reef, and it 
would not be advisable to attempt the passage in light winds, as there is no 
anchorage ground outside j and the swell and the currents, which sometimes 
run strong, might drift a vessel on a shallow part of the reef, either east- 
ward or westward of the channel, upon which the sea breaks heavily in 
4 fathoms, and outside which there is no bottom at 80 fathoms within 
40 yards of the breakers. 

The plan of these islands must not be considered complete, and there are 
doubtiess many coral heads in, the lagoon which have not been discovered ; 
a careful look out aloft is therefore absolutely necessary. 

Tides.— I>ui'ing a fortnight's stay of the French ship Le Somme, in 
1871, it was found to be high water at new moon between one and two 
hours after noon, greatest rise 3 feet. At ebb tide a strong current enters 
at th^ norlh-west channel and runs thence through the south-west and 
.south-east channels. A current generally sets to the westward in the day- 
time, and runs strong in the western channel. 

MOBANE or CADMUS ISLAND, lying 109 miles W.^ S.of 

the Gambler islands, is a low coral reef, 5 miles long, by 2J miles broad, 
without any entrance to the lagoon, in which are situated three low islands 
inhabited by a few hostile natives. Position of centre according to the 
French despatch vessel Megere, lat. 23° 8' S., long. 137° 8' W. 

MOERENHUT or MARIA ISLAND, 90 miles N.W. by W. 

of the Gambler islands, in lat. 22° 0' S., 136° 12' W., is long, low, and wooded 



— 



OHAP.ra.] MOEANE. — ^AOTiBON GBOUP. — ^MUBUEOA. 7! 

in the centre, the north and south extremes are planted with cocoanut 
trees. 

MABUTEA or LORD HOOD ISLAND was discovered in 
1791 by Captain Edwards in the Pandora. It consists of a cluster of 
small islets, rising from a chain of coral even with, or a little above the 
water's edge. On these islets grow a variety of shrubs and treesi. The 
island is 11 miles long and 4f miles wide, uninhabited, and containing a 
lagoon into which there is no entrance. The West point is in lat. 31° 31' S., 
long. 135** 38' W.* 

ACTION GROUP, situated about 40 miles west of Marutea, 
consists of four islands, and was discovered by Mr. Thomas Ebrill in the 
merchant vessel ^jw/?/ii^reVc in 1833. 

Maturei Vavao or Melbourne Island, the south-eastern- 

most and largest, is about 6 miles long in a north-west and south-east 
direction, and wooded except on ^ the west side. There is no entrance 
into the lagoon. 
The north-west extreme is iii lat. 21° 25' S., long. 136*' 25' W. 

Tenarunga or Minto Island, in lat. 2i° 18' S., long. 136° 31' W., 

lies about 8 miles north-westward of Maturei Vavao, and has about 20 
inhabitants who are hostile. 

Vahanga or Bedford Island lies about 5 miles westward of 

Tenarunga, and is uninhabited. 

Tenararo Island, in lat. 21° 18^ S., long. 136'' 45' W., has about 
20 inhabitants, it is wooded and lies 5 or 6 miles westward of Vahanga. 

Current. — The current in the neighbourhood of these islands, with 
a light westerly wind, sets E.N.E., 7 miles in twenty-four hours ; but the 
direction varies with the wind, and usually sets to the westward. 

PANGATAUPA or COCKBURN ISLAND was dis- 

covered by Captain Beechey in the Blossom in 1826. It is a small coral 
island 3 j miles in length by 3 miles in width. Its form is nearly oblong, 
with the southern side much curved. 

The lagoon in the centre is deep, the boundary very low and narrow, 
and in places the sea overflows. It was uninhabited in 1861. 

The hUlock at the N.E. end is in lat. 22° 12' S. long. 138° 42' W. 

MURUROA or OSNABURG ISLAND, lying about 20 

miles N.N. W. of Fangataufa, was discovered by Captain Carteret in 1767- 
In 1792, the Matilday a whaler, was wrecked in the night time on a reef 
the position of which was given as lat. 22° 0' S., long. 138° 34' W. In 
February 1826 Captain Beechey, when exploring the vicinity, determined 
the identity of these same spots by finding on the reef unequivocal signs 

♦ Captain Beechey, H.M.S. Blossom, 1826. 



72 PATJMOTU OR LOW AECHIPELAQO. [chap, in. 

of a shipwreck ; two anchors, a cannon, metal boiler, and leaden pump; 
marked 1790, If these were the remains of the Matilda, of which thei'e 
can be but little doubt, a considerable alteration has taken place in the 
island, as the crew of that vessel describe themselves as having been lost on 
a reef of rocks, whereas the island on which these anchors are lying 
extends 14 miles in length and has one of its sides covered with high trees, 
which from the spot where the vessel was wrecked are very conspicuous^ 
and could not fail to be seen by persons in the situation of her crew. 

The island differs from the usual coral formations in having a great 
disproportion in the growth of its sides. The windward side is covered 
with tall trees as before mentioned, while the lee side is nearly all under 
water. The dry part of the chain enclosing the lagoon is about one-sixth 
of a mile in width but varies considerably in its dimensions ; the broad 
parts are furnished with low mounds of sand, which have been raised by 
the action of the waves, but are now out of their reach and mostly covered 
with vegetation. The violence of the waves upon the shore, except at 
low water, forces the sea into the lagoon at many places^ and occasions a 
constant outset through the channel to leeward. The lagoon which is 
generally 20 fathoms deep is dotted with knolls of coral which are in some 
cases close to the surface and dangerous even to boats sailing in the lagoon 
with a fresh breeze, particularly in cloudy weather as at that time they are 
difficult to distinguish. 

The lagoon was entered by an opening on the west side. The channel 
was sufficiently wide and deep to admit H.M.S. Blossom, but is now closed 
(1861). There are now about 100 inhabitants who are hostile. 

This island, which differs very considerably from the position given by 
Captain Carteret is in lat. 21° 50' S., long. 138° 47' W. (east extreme), 
a search in the vicinity however revealed no other reef, Osnaburg island 
and Matilda reef may therefore be considered identical. 

TEMATANGI or BLIGH'S LAGOON ISLAND, 

situated 86 miles west of Mururoa, was discovered by Captain Bligh in 1792 
and named by him Lagoon island. It is about 7 miles in diameter. The 
natives seen by Captain Beech ey were all armed with clubs and spears. A 
portion of these hostile natives were removed to Tahiti in 1858. They were 
strongly suspected of having eaten the shipwrecked crew of the Sarah Anne* 
The north point of the island is in lat. 21° SS'^S., long. 140° 40' W. 

TUREIA or CARTSPORT ISLAND, 60 miles N. by E. of 
Mururoa, was discovered by Captain Edwards in the Pandora in 1791. 
The island is of coral, and so low that the sea washesjinto the enclosed lagoon. 
The weather side is wooded, and there is no^entrance to the lagoon. 

There are only a few inhabitants. 

The east extreme is in lat. 20° 45' S., long. 138° 30' W. 



CHAP.m.]' TEMATANGI. — ^DUKE OF GLOUCESTER ISLANDS, 73 

VANA-VANA or BARROW ISLAND, 32 miles W. ^ S. of 

Tureia, was discovered by Captain Beechej in 1826. It is a small coral 
island 1^ miles in length north and south and about 1^ miles wide. The, 
island consists of a narrow strip of land about 200 yards wide surrounding 
a lagoon which the colour of the water in^licated was of no great depth. 

Upon the shore of the lagoon the pandanus, and cocoanut trees and 
other bushes constituted a thick wood. 

Under these trees three large pits were found containing fresh water. 
No natives were then seen on the island, but some of their canoes were 
found on the lagoon. In 1861 there were a few hostile people. 

The north end is in lat. 20^ 45' S., long. 139° 10' W. 

DUKE of GLOUCESTER ISLANDS consists of a small 

group of three islands, which were named by Carteret in 1767- 

Nukutipipi or Margaret Island, the easternmost of the group, 
is a small round lagoon island about 2 miles in circumference, high and well 
wooded on the north side, with a flat submerged reef on the eastern side. 
The south-west point is in lat. 20° 42' S., long. 143° 5' W. 

Anu-Anurunga or Pour Crowns, 13 miles w. by N. of 

Nukutipipi, was discovered by Quiros in 1606. There are now five clumps 
of trees on the island. There is no entrance to the lagoon and landing is 
impossible. No traces of inhabitants were seen. 
It is in lat. 20° 38' S., long. 143° 19' W. 

Anu-Anuraro or Archangel Island, 14 miles w.N.w. of 

Anu-Anurunga, was named by Quiros in 1606, its true situation and 
character was determined by the U.S. Exploring Expedition in 1841. 

On the 10th of January, Lieutenant Ringgold made what he supposed 
to be Archangel island, but very much out of the reported position. It 
is a small lagoon island of oblong shape, lying north-west and south-east, 
wooded on the eastern sides, with stunted trees. No cocoanut trees were 
observed. A reef extends off the N.W. and S.W. sides with a heavy surf, 
and there is a submerged reef on the south and west sides. 

There is' no entrance to the lagoon and landing cannot be effected 
without danger. 

The centre is in lat. 20° 29' S., long. 143° 33' W. 

The supposed situation of Archangel island was then searched for. but 
no signs of land seen. 

HEREHEBETUE or SAN PABLO was also discovered 
by Quiros in 1606 and was examined by the U.S. exploring vessel 
Porpoise, The island encloses a lagoon about 3 miles in diameter, but no 
entrance could be found. The inhabitants, a dark-skinned race, resisted 
the landing of the Americans. 
" The north end is in lat. 19° 52' S., long. 145° 0' W. 



74 PATTMOTTJ OR LOW ARCHIPELAGO. [ciLLV.iir. 

REAO or CLERMONT-TONNERE ISLAND was dis- 
covered by Captain Duperrey in La Coquille in 1822. It is 10 or 11 
miles long, W.N.W. and E.S.E. and Very narrow, particulaiiy at the 
extremities, and when seen at a distance does not appear more than half 
a mile wide. With the exception of a few breaks on the southern shore, 
the land is almost continuous. At the extremities and angles the soil is 
more elevated than in other parts and is covered with shrubs and cocoanut 
trees. The enclosed lagoon contains several small islets, and the shores 
all round are steep. 

The east end is in lat. 18° 34' S., long. 136° 20' W. 

PUKARUHA or SERLE ISLAND, 30 mUes W. \ N. from 

Keao, was discovered by Captain Wilson in 1797 during the missionary 
voyage of the Duff. The island is of coral formation, 7^ miles in length 
in a N.W. and S.E. direction, and 2 J miles wide in the broadest part. 
The windward side is the most perfect, the southern side diifers in being 
wider, and having a barren fiat, full an eighth of a mile outside the trees. 
On this account, it is necessary for a ship to be cautious in approaching 
during the night, as the land is so low that the breakers would be the first 
warning of the danger of her situation. The lagoon is very narrow and 
apparently shallow, with several islands in the middle. Besides the clumps 
of trees at the extremities, which at a distance have the appearance of 
banyan trees, there are several clusters of palms, a distinction which is 
recommended to the commanders of vessels ; as besides assisting in identifying 
the island it will enable them to estimate their distance from them with 
tolerable precision. There are but few inhabitants and they are hostile. 
The south-east extreme is in lat. 18° 22' S., long. 136° 58' W.* 

TATAKOTO or CLERKE ISLAND, 90 miles N.W. by W. 

of Pukaruha, is 4 miles in length and one mile broad ; the land is very 

low and encloses a lagoon, into which there is no entrance. The northern 

part is wooded, and cocoanut trees are abundant. 

The southern part is merely reef. The inhabitants are hostile, 

A spot on the north side about one mile westward of the north-east 

extremity is in lat. 17° 18' S., long. 138° 19' W. 

FINAKI or WHITSUNDAY ISLAND was discovered by 
Captain Wallis in 1767. It is 1^ miles in length, steep all round, of coral 
formation, well wooded, and encloses a lagoon. The general height of the 
soil is 6 feet above the level of the sea ; from the trees to the surf there is 
a space of hard rock nearly 150 yards wide, covered with about a foot 
of water, beyond which the reef descends rapidly, and at 500 yards 
distance no bottom could bo found with 250 fathoms of line. 



♦ Captain Beechey, H.M.S. Blossom, 1826. 



CHAP.m.] PUKARUHA. — ^PINAKI, — ^VAHITAHI. 75 

On the inner side from the trees to the lake, is a gentle declivity of 
muddy sand. The trees, which foim a tolerably thick wood round the 
lagoon are similar to those at Clermont-Tonnerre and consist principally 
of pandanus and cocoanut. 

On the south side there is a very narrow entrance to the lagoon, too 
shallow for the passage of boats even with a smooth sea. 

The north-west extreme is in lat. 19^ 24' S., long. US'" 43' W.* 

NUKUTAVAKE or QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLAND, 

lying 8 miles N.W. of Pinaki, is of coral formation and has no lagoon. 
There we^e a few friendly natives in 1861. 
The eastern extreme is in lat. 19° 17' S., long. 138° 49' W. 

VAIRAATEA or EGMONT ISLAND, 22 miles W. by S. 

of Nukutavake, consists of twojslands situated on the same reef, the eastern 
one being named Puka-runga and the western Puka-raro, runga signifying 
windward and raro leeward. 

The islands are well wooded with cocoanut and pandanus trees. Land- 
ing is very difficult and dangerous on account of the heavy swell. There 
were about 30 friendly inhabitants in 1861. 
. The north extreme is in lat. 19° 18' S., long. 139° 18' W. 

VAHITAHI or COOK LAGOON, lying 33 miles N. by W. of 
Nukutavake, was discovered by Bougainville in 1768. The island is 3 miles 
in length in a W. by S. and E. by N. direction, and about one mile wide ; 
the southern side is a low reef. 

There are liirge clumps of cocoanut trees on the east and west ends. 
The enclosed lagoon is in some parts very shallow and contracted, and 
contains many diy islets. The shore is steep except on the south side, 
which should not be approached withia a quarter of a mile. 

Captain Beechey speaks highly of the natives for integrity and good 
nature. 

The north-extreme is in lat. 18° 42' S., long. 138"* 50' W. 

AKIAKI or THRUM CAP ISLAND, 23 mUes W.N.W. of 
Vahitahi, in lat. 18° 30' S., long. 139° 14' W., was discovered by Bougain- 
ville in 1768. It is of coral formation, three quarters of a mile in length, 
well wooded, and steep all round. At a mile distant no bottom could be 
obtained with 400 fathoms of line. No lagoon could be perceived, and the 
sea ran too high to admit of landiug.* 

There were a few hostile natives in 1861. 

The captain of the French vessel of war Lamothe Piquet reported that 
in 1861 the French flag was hoisted on the north side. 



* Captain Beechey, H.M.S. Blossom, 1826. 



HAO, HABFE or BOW ISLAND was discovered by 
Bougainville in 1768 and was visited by Cook the following year, who gave 
the island the latter name from ila resemblance to a bow. Its figure pro- 
tracted upon paper, however, is very irregular, and bears but small resem- 
blanee to the instrument after which the isknd was named, but to a person 
viewing it as Captain Cook did, the mistake is likely to occur. It is of 

• Cftplain Beechey, H.M.S. Bloiinm, 1826. 
t Furis Notice HfdrogrBphique, No. 1 of 1880. 



CHAP. iii.J NENGONENGO. — HAO.— TWO GROUPS. 77 

coral formation, 30 miles long, and has an average breadth of 5 miles, is 
•well wooded on the weather side, but very scantily so on the other, and go 
low in this latter half, that the sea in places washes into the lagoon. The 
only entrance is on the north-west side, by which the Blossom entered, and 
which is sometimes dangerous for boats in consequence of the overfalls from 
the lagoon, especially a short time after high water. The passage may be 
recognised by two straggling cocoanut trees on the western side, and a 
clump of trees on the other. There is good landing for boats inside the 
western entrance point. 

The time of entry depends on the time of high or slack water as the 
velocity of the ebb, when much water has been forced into the lagoon, 
prevents the ship from steering. The lagoon is at all times a difficult place 
to enter with a vessel drawing over 15 feet. It cannot be entered against 
the ebb in a sailing vessel without a breeze which would command a speed 
of at least 6 knots, as the current runs above 4 knots.* 

Approaching from seaward, the state of the current can generally be 
pretty fairly estimated by the ^* tail race " which sweeps to sea about three- 
quarters of a mile ; directly this slackens or ceases the entrance may be 
approached, it is, however, very narrow and contracted by a coral knoll in 
the centre, covered by only 16 feet of water, the trade wind also does not 
always allow a ship to lie well through. The Blossom anchored in the 
north-east part of the lagoon in 10 fathoms, on a broad patch of sand, about 
a quarter of a mile from the shore. 

Supplies consisting of Hsh and a few fowls and pigs are obtainable, and 
fresh water of an inferior quality may be obtained by digging wells. The 
inhabitants are friendly and obliging. 

The morai on the east side of the entrance is in lat. 18° 3' 38" S. 
long. 140° 59' 15" W. 

AMANU or MOLLER ISLAND, which is separated from 
the north end of Hao island by a channel 9 miles wide, was discovered by 
Captain Bellingshausen in 1829. It is 18 miles long in a north-east and 
south-west direction, and 8 or 9 miles broad. There is an entrance on tlie 
west side to the lagoon. . The natives are friendly. 

The north point is in lat. 17° 40' S., long. 140^ 39' W. 

TWO GROUPS (Marokau, and Ravahere or Dawa- 

haidi) were discovered by Cook in 1773. According to M. Mauruc they 
are vexy low, and each encloses a lagoon. There is a canoe entrance to tlie 
former in the south-eastern part. They are separated by a narrow channel 
in which, however, there is room for the largest ship to Vork. 



♦ See Admiralty plan of Hao or Bow island, No. 1111. 



78 PAUMOTU OR LOW ARCHIPELAGO, [ohaf. m. 

The natives are stated to be friendly. 

The south extreme of the southern group is in lat. 18° 18' S., 
long. 142° 12' W. 

REITORU or BIRD ISLAND was discovered by Cook in 
1769. It is small and low and encloses a lagoon, and resorted to by birds in 
large flocks for incubation. There are no inhabitants. 

The north point is in lat. 17° 48' S., long. 143° 7' W. 

HARAIKI, ST. QUENTIN or CROKER ISLAND, 

32 miles N.W. by W. of Reitoru, is 4 miles long in a north-west and 
south-east direction, and has a small boat entrance on the south-west side. 
The island is uninhabited. 

The north point is in lat. 17° 29' S., long. 143° 31' W. 

HIKTTERTJ or MELVILLE ISLAND was discovered by 
Captain Beechey in 1826. It is low and well wooded and encloses a 
lagoon, into which there is a passage for small boats. 

The north-west end is in lat. 17** 35' S., Ion?. 142° 41' W. 

TEKOKOTO or DOUBTFUL ISLAND, in lat. 17° 20' S., 

long. 142° 37' W., and 16 miles north of Melville island, was discovered by 
Cook in 1770 ; it is a circular reef one mile in diameter, on the west point of 
which IS a conspicuous clump of trees. 

TAUERI, RESOLUTION or ST. SIMON ISLAND 

was discovered by Bonecheo in 1772 and named by Cook in 1773 after his 
ship. The island is about 4 miles in circumference and consists of two 
small islets, on which are three clumps of cocoanut trees, but the greater 
portion of the south and west sides is a bare reef. 

There is a canoe passage into the enclosed lagoon on the nonh-west 
side ; the inhabitants are few and friendly. The south point is in 
lat. 17° 23' S., long. 141° 30' W. 

REKAREKA or GOOD HOPE ISLAND, 38 miles N.W. 

of Taueri, is 5 miles long in a north-east and south-west direction, and about 
4 miles broad. There is a boat entrance to the lagoon on the north-east 
side. The island is well wooded and inhabited by a few friendly natives. 
The south end is in lat. 16° 51' S., long. 141° 55' W. 

MARUTEA or PURNEAUX ISLANDS wore discovered 
by Cook in 1773, they are low and enclose a lagoon ; the northern part is 
wooded and the southern is a rocky flat. In the north-east part is a boat 
passage. There are but few inhabitants. 

The west point is in lat. 16° 54' S., long. 143° 20' W. 

NIHIRU or NIGERI ISLAND, the north point of which is in 
lat. 16° 41' S., long. 142° 53' W., is about 7 miles across and well wooded 



CHAP.m.] TATTERI. — NIHIRU. — ^DISAPPOINTMENT ISLANDS, 79 

near the south-east part. The reef which surrounds this island extends a 
considerable distance from the south and south-east points, but forms a deep 
bight just west of the south-east point. 

A strong «iorth-easterlj current was experienced round the south-east 
point by the French war vessel Im Misange,* 

FAKAINA or PREDPRIATIE ISLAND was discovered 

by Kotzebue in 1824. It is 4 miles in extent E.N.E. and W.S.W., well 
wooded with palm trees, and encloses a lagoon. The centre is in lat. 
15° 59' S., long. 140° 8' W. 

ANGATAU or ARAKTCHEPP ISLAND, lying 39 

miles W. by N. of Fakaina was discovered by Bellingshausen in 1820. 
The north-west coast is wooded ; landing is effected near the west point ; 
with the wind to the northward of east landing is easier on the south coast. 
There are about 200 inhabitants who are friendly. Missionaries have been 
established among them. 

The centre is in lat. 15° 51' S., long. 140° 50' W. 

PUKA PUKA, HONDEN or DOG ISLAND, in 

lat. 14° 50' S., long. 138° 50' W., is a coral island enclosing a lagoon which 
communicates with the sea at very high tides only, by means of two channels 
on opposite sides of the island. There are no cocoanut trees on the island 
and no inhabitants. 

DISAPPOINTMENT ISLANDS —This group consists of 
two islands, the easternmost named Napuka and the western Tetopoto. 

NSipukA is formed of islets, connected by a coral reef of irregular form 
enclosing a lagoon. 

The east and west sides are well wooded, but the south side is almost 
entirely devoid of vegetation. There is a landing place about one mile 
from the west point. The inhabitants, about 85 in number, are hostile. 

The north-west point is in lat. 14° 9' S., long. 141° 14' W. 

TotOpOtO lies about 12 miles W.N.W. of Napuka, from which it is 
visible. The island is thickly wooded with large trees and is about a 
square mile in extent, having no lagoon, and probably not permanently 
inhabited. 

TAKUME or WOLKONSKT ISLAND is low, and 

encloses a lagoon, into which there is no entrance. The inhabitants are 
few in number and harmless. There is a landing place for boats on the 
west coast about three nailes south of the north point of the island. 
The village on the northern part is in lat. 15° 44' S., long. 142° 9' W. 



♦ Paris, Annales Hydrographiques, No. 539 of 1874. 



80 PAUMOTU OR LOW ARCHIPELAGO. [chap. m. 

BAROIA or BARCLAY ISLAND.— This island is very 
lightly wooded on the east side, but the north and west sides are covered 
with vegetation, especially about one mile southward of the west passage 
and at the south-west point, where the clumps of cocoanut t!*ees are very 
remarkable. The entrance on the west side can be used by large vessels, 
but has numerous patches of coral, and the tide runs sometimes from 
6 to 8 knots. Captain Lejeune of the Cassini observes that there is good 
anchorage about one mile S.S.W. of the entrance and near a village among 
the cocoanut trees. 

The inhabitants are friendly. In 1873, at the time of the visit of the 
French war vessel La Mesange, they were 75 in number. Cocoanut trees 
are extensively cultivated, but pearl fishing was prohibited. 

Pigs, fowls, fish, and water can be obtained. 

The south point of the island is in lat. 16° 13' S., long. 142° 31' W. 

TAENGA, HOLT or YERMALOPP ISLAND is very 

low and encloses a lagoon with which there is communication by two 
passages, a small one on the north-east side and the other about 1^ miles 
from the south point on the south-west coast, which will admit a vessel of 
200 tons. 

The north-east coast is well wooded ; in the southern part of the island 
there are only two patches of cocoanut trees, one on either side of the pass. 
There is a village at the southern extremity of the island which was visited 
by the Mesange in 1873, and the inhabitants were found to be 30 in 
number. 

The pass is in lat. 16° 20' S., long. 143° 11' W. 

MAKEMO or PHILIP ISLAND was discovered in the 
Margaret in 1803. It lies W.N.W. and E.S.E., is about 40 miles in 
length, very low, and encloses a lagoon. The north-east part is well 
wooded. 

There are two entrances to the lagoon, one on the north-east side and 
the other on the western side, which are each divided into three separate 
channels by two patches of coral. In the N.E. passage any of these may 
be chosen according to the wind. The anchorage is good, and will be 
found westward of the reef which bounds the western side of the passage. 

The French war vessel La Mesange anchored in 7 fathoms, sand and 
coral, 2 cables S.S.W. of the wharf which lies abreast of a village con- 
taining about 100 inhabitants. A second village lies 15 miles westward of 
the last-mentioned. There is good anchorage off the mole in 7 or 8 
fathoms, about 2 cables from the shore. This village is the residence of 
the chief and contains 50 inhabitants. Tlie Mesange entered the lagoon 
by the N.E. passage, visited and anchored off each of the villages, and 



t^- 



<JHAp.m.] MAKEMO. — RAEFFSKY ISLANDS. 81 

left by the west passage, in which the pilot stated there was not sufficient 
water for a vessel drawing over 16 feet.* 

The southern part of the island is but a chain of reefs. 

The western side of the N.E. passage is in lat. 16° 36' S., long. 
143° 32' W. 

The western passage is in lat. 16° 26' S., long. 143** 58' W. 

' Supplies. — ^I'igSj fowls, and good water may be obtained. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change^ in the N.E. passage at 
•3 hours. 

CAUtion. — ^The ebb tide sets out of the north-east pass with great 
strength ; vessels under sail should therefore not attempt to enter except 
with a flood tide. 

KATIIJ or SAKEN ISLAND is very low, and encloses a 
lagoon into which there are two passages, one in the northern part suitable 
for ships, and the other, a smaller one, in the south-west part. 

There is no fixed population. 

The west end is in laf. 16° 22' S., long. 144° 28' W. 

RAEFFSKY ISLANDS consists of three small islands, the 
southernmost of which was discovered by Bellingshausen in 1820. 

Hiti, tlie easternmost, is uninhabited, and situated in lat. 16° 42'' S., 
long. 144° 9' W. 

TVLBJlBikBij the northernmost is uninhabited ; there is a small passage 
for boats on the north side. 

The centre is in lat. 16° 41' S., long. 144° 14' W. 

TepotO, the southernmost, is in lat. 16° 48' S., long. 144° 19' W. 

It is reported that Katiu and the Raeffsky islands are not placed rehi- 
tively correct on the charts ; as bearings taken gave most impossible results 
as to the position of the ship. j 

MOTUTUNGA or ADVENTURE ISLAND.— This 

island was discovered by Cook in 1773. It is very low and encloses a 
lagoon, into which there is a boat passage at the noii;h-west end. The 
island is occasionally inhabited. 

The north-west entrance is in lat. 17° 3' S., long. 144° 25' W. 

TAHANEA or TCHITCHAGOFF ISLAND.-This 

island is about 25 miles long in an east and west direction ; about 10 miles 
from the eastern point there are three ship passages into the lagoon at 
equal distances from each other, about a quarter of a mile apart. The 
island is wooded on the north and north-east sides, but there are few trees 
-on the south-east coast. 



* Paris, Annales Hydrographiqnes, No. 539 of 1874. 
t Paris, Notice Hydrograpluqae, No. 1 of 188Q. 
16615. 



82 PATJMOTU Oil LOW ARCHIPELAGO. [chap. ni. 

The N.W. point is in lat. 16° 46' S., long. 144° 58' W. 

ANAA or CHAIN ISLAND was discovered by Cook in 
1769, and although one of the smallest is the most thickly populated island 
of the group, and possesses the best cultivation, exporting a quarter of the 
exports of the whole group. 

It was formerly believed to contain 5,000 inhabitants, or about half the 
population of the whole archipelago, which large number was accounted 
for by the conquest of the other islands, and taking the inhabitants as 
captives ; in 1874 the population was estimated at 1,500. The whole 
island is one cocoanut grove, and in 1 873 copra was exported to the amount 
of 900 tons, and appeared likely to increase in quantity in succeeding 
years. 

A great change has been brought about in the character of these natives 
since the establishment of the Tahitian missionaries in the island ; before 
this period the natives were cannibals. This change was first evinced by 
the treatment of the captives, who were allowed if they chose to return to 
their own islands. 

The Roman Catholic mission is established at the village of Tuuhora, on 
the north part of the island ; at this villnge also are courts of appeal for the 
archipelago. 

In 1860 the natives cut a passage through the reef for boats to approach 
the village, near a small circular islet, which is in lat. 17° 20' S., 
long. 145° 30' W. 

On 7th February 1878 a severe cyclone passed over this island, causing 
a great deal of damage and destroying the buildings of the French resident 
of the Paumotu archipelago. This resident is now stationed at Rotoava 
village on Fakarava island.* 

PAAITE or MILORADOWITCH ISLAND was dis- 

covered by Bellingshausen in 1819. It is 15 miles in length in a W.N. W. and 
E.S.E. direction and about 5 miles broad ; at the north-west end there is an 
opening, where small vessels may moor, but only boats can enter the lagoon. 
The island is well wooded near the western end and there are some chimps 
of trees on the north and north-east parts, but the southern side is merely 
reef. 

Good water is in greater abundance here than in the other islands, but 
difficult to procure. 

The north-west extremity is in lat. 16° 42' S., long. 145° 22' W. 

FAKARAVA or WITTGENSTEIN ISLAND —The 

lagoon enclosed by this island is 32 miles long and about 10 miles wide, 

♦ Paris, Notice Hydrographique, No. 1 ot 1880. 



CHAP. HI.] ANAA. — FAKABAVA. 83 

rectangular in form, and having two entrances, one at the north-west and 
the other on the south-east side. 

On the west side of the encircling reef, are six small islets situated about 
a mile from the outer edge of the reef ; the northern and north-western 
coasts are generally well wooded and have numerous clumps of cocoanut 
trees. 

The cjclone of 1878 passed over this island and caused much damage to 
some of the trees, &c, 

Ngaruae passage on the north-west side is about 7 cables broad, and 
the least depth obtained was 6 fathoms ; it is suitable for the largest ves- 
sels, coral patches however may exist. The east side is bordered with a 
thick grove of cocoanut trees and on the west side there is a low sandy 
point on which is a pole surmounted by a triangle painted white. Sailing 
vessels should enter or leave during slack water, or with the tide. After 
passing through, Punio reef, which is surmounted by very conspicuous 
black heads and cannot be mistaken, will be observed, and should be left on 
the port hand, giving • it a berth of about 300 yards. About 300 yards 
W. by vS. of Punio reef there is ^ bank with only 3 fathoms water. 

Rotoava anchorage is situated about 5^ miles E. by N. from the 
entrance and may be recognised by a flag staff on a white pyramid, 
visible from 2 to 3 miles. The line between Punio reef and the mole on 
which this pyramid is situated is free of dangers ; there are some rocks 
on either side, but they can all be distinctly seen. Moderate siyied vessels 
anchor in from 7 to 10 fathoms, sand and coral, with the pyramid bearing 
N.N.E., large vessels anchor further to the westward. A coral reef with 
9 feet water, marked by a white buoy, is situated 1^ miles W.S.W. from 
the mole extending from the pyramid. 

The anchorage is excellent in winds from W.S.W. through north to S.S.E. 
South-easterly winds raise a slight sea, but with winds between S.S E. and 
W.S.W. the sea is heavy. The vill^e of Rotoava contains about 150 
inhabitants. 

The French rehidcnt for the Paumotu archipelago is stationed at 
Eakarava and lives at llotoava village.* The pyramid at Eotoava is in 
lat. 16° 2' S., long. 145° 36' W. 

Supplies. — ^Pigs and fowls are procured with difficulty. Fairly good 
water is found by digging. Fish caught in the lagoon should not be eaten 
unless pronounced good by the natives, many species being poisonous.f 

Tumakoliua, ^he passage on the south-east side of the island is not 
recommended for vessels drawing over 15 feet ; and with strong winds 
from the south-eastward a vessel should not attempt to sail out. 



♦ Paris, Notice Hydrographique, No. 4 of 1882. 
t Paris, Notice Hydrographique, No. I of 1U80 

F 2 



S4 PAUMOTU OR LOW ARCHIPELAGO. [cnvp. m. 

Tetamanu, the village on the north side of the passage, has 140 
inhabitants ; fowls, pigs and eggs are obtainable in small quantities and 
good water easily obtained by digging. 

Ancliorage. — The anchorage north-west of the village is approached 
by passing northward of two banks nearly dry. Vessels should anchor 
close to the shore in from 6 to 8 fathoms, bottom sand and cond. This 
anchorage is exposed to north-westerly winds. 

RARAEA ISLAND. — ^This island was discovered by Captain 
Ireland in 1831 and is abbut 14 miles in length in a north-west and south- 
east direction. The northern coasts are wooded, and on the south side 
are seven small wooded islets. There is an entrance into the lagoon on the 
north-west side in lat. 16° 4' S., long. 144° 59' W., navigable for vessels of 
100 tons. The ebb tide runs very strong. A small village is situated near 
the pass. 

EAUEHI or VINCENNES ISLAND.-This island was 

discovered by Captain Fitz-Roy in the Beagle in 1835. It is 12 miles 
long north and south, by 9 miles wide, and has an opening into the lagoon 
on the south side with 15 fathoms tvater ; there is good anchorage in the 
.noilh east part near a large grove of cocoanut trees. 

Oil the south-east part is a high clump of trees^ the remainder of the 
island is covered with a growth of bushes 10 or 12 feet high. 

The anchorage is in lat. 15° 50' S., long. 145° 8' W. 

TAIARO or KINGS ISLAND, in lat. 15° 46' S., 

long. 144° 37' W., was also discovered by Captain Fitz-Roy in 1835. It is 
k)w, nearly circular, about 3 miles in diameter and covered with trees and 
shrubs, which surround a lagoon into which however there is no entrance. 

ARATIEA or CARLSHOFF ISLAND was discovered by 
Tto^gewein in 1722, and was named CarlshofT by Kotzebue in his second 
•voyage. This island is 8 miles in length east and west, and the highest 
point at the south-western end is 12 feet above low water, and thickly 
wooded. There are two entrances, one on the west side, the other a boat 
entrance on the east. 

Temaketa the western passage is about 200 yards long and from 
'60 to 80 yards wide and appeared safe, the entrance may be recognised by 
lieing bordered on the south side by the largest of the wooded islets of the 
west coast, and on the north by a small cluster of trees.* 

The west pomt of the island is in lat. 15° 33' S., long. 145° 34' W. 

TOAU or ELIZABETH ISLAND is about 20 miles in 
length east and west, and has two large openings on the east side. The 



Paris, Notice llydrographique, No. 1 of 1880. 



CHAP, m.] ^ KAUEHI. — TOAU. — KATTKTJRA. 8& 

north-west coast is well wooded, on the south side there is a small wood 
about.4 miles eastward of the west point, eastward of this wood the sea 
breaks continuously on the reef which is scarcely ever dry. The north 
coast is well wooded at intervals, the greatest space without vegetation 
is just to the westward of Otuni the southern passage. 

Orepa passage is the northernmost of the two eastern passages and 
is adapted for any sized vessels, but should not be entered against the tide^ 
There is anchorage on either side inside this passage. 

Otuni paSSagG is the easternmost and has room for small vessels: 
to work in, the eddies run very strong and have been felt 4 miles outside 
the entrance. The anchorage is southward of the passage.* 

Matarina ancliorage, which appears to afford shelter in all winds, 
is situated in the north-west part of the lagoon^ and being a somewhat 
confined. anchorage, vessels should moor and secure to the coral. 

NIAU or GREIO ISLAND, the north point of which is in 
lati 16° T S., long. 146^ 23' W., is about 4 miles north and south, welL 
wooded and visible for a distance of 10 or 12 miles. 

The cyclone of 1878 is said to have totally destroyed this island ; many 
of the inhabitants were washed into the lagoon by the surf and drowned ; 
a few were saved by tying themselves to trees. f 

KAUEURA or AURA ISLAND is about 20 miles in extent 
north-west and south-east ; upon the north and south sides (especially 
the latter) a severe hurricane in 1878 caused some enormous blocks of 
coral (some 30 feet high) to be washed up by the sea, these blocks are. 
visible for about 10 miles. 

The western point of the island is well wooded, although the tops of a; 
great number of trees are broken.* 

There is a boat entrance on the W.N.W. side. 

T!ie west point is in lat. 15^ 40' S., long. 146^ 51' W. 

APATAKI or HAGEMEISTER ISLAND, the N.e: 

point of which is in lat. 15° 18' S., long. 146° 15' W., was discovered by 
Captain Hagemeister in 1830. It is about 17 miles in extent north and 
south, and has three passes on its west side, leading into the lagoon, the 
southern pass named Pakaka, and the northern named Tehere, are 
navigable for large vessels ; the middle pass can be used only by small 
vessels, and with difficulty. In Pakaka pass there are two buoys moored 
opposite the village. Population, about 50. 



* Paris, Notice Hydrographique, No. 1 of 1880. 

t Berlin, Annalen der Hydrographie, Heft. I of 1879. 



86 PAtJMOTU OR LOW AECHIPELAGa [cHiP. nL 

ARUTUA or RURICK ISLAND is about 20 miles in extent 
east and west. On the east aide there is a long passage called firovaki, 
which gives accees to the lagoon to Bmall vessels. 

The nativen are of Talittian origin. 

The south point is in lat. 15" 26' S., long. 146° 44' W. 

TIKEI or ROMANZOFP ISLAND is a small wooded 
coral island about 10 mites in circumference and having no lagoon. It is 
inhabited by about 20 natives from the ai^otning islands of TJra and Tiolea, 
Fi'om them a few fowls, eggs, and pigs, can be procured. There is 
landini; on the west side, with the prevailing ea^ter]^ wind.* 

The centre is in tat. 14° 66' S., long. 144° 33' W. 

KING GEORGE ISLANDS was the name applied by Cook 
to two islands named i-espectively Ura or Takapofo and Tickea or 
Tukavoaj they had, however, been previously discovered. Tiokea was 
snen by Roggewein in 1722. 

Ura or TakapOtO is 13 miles long N.N.E. and S.S.W., and has no 
imssagi; into the lagoon. 

Iloata can land at a place named Fakatopatere about 5 cables north- 
OBstwiird of the south point of the island. There is also landing 2 or 3 
miles further to the northward on a part of the reef named Okukina.* 

The Houth point is in lat.H" 44' S., long. 145° 14' W. 

Tiokea or Takaroa i' is miles in length, N.E, and S.W., andon 
thesouth-westeide is an entrance named Tehavaroa which will admit vessels 
of 11 feet drniight. A large white pyramid situated near a wharf in the 
interior of the lagoon ia visible from seaward, and is a good mark for the 
entrance, ill which the tide seldom runs slwing enough to prevent a vessel 
Ji-om enlering far enough to anchor, when she can either be waiped in or 
wait until the flood tide, and secure to the wharf. 

The moorings in the wharf are very safe, even with winds blowing from 
the cntiunce; the inhabitants say, that during the cyclone of 1878, when 
tlic sea swept away the houses near ihe wharf, not one vessel, well secured, 
was in any danger, for the water coming from the land formed a counter 
current which kept the ships away from the wharf; but with strong westerly 
winds it is better to haul further in.* 

Supplies. — Fish, fowls, and eggs can be obtained and water is 
abundant. 

The flag staff near the pyramid ia in lat. 14° 27' S., long. 145° C W. 

MANIHI or WATERLAND ISLAND was probably 
discovered by Le Maire and Schouten in 1616, and is about 13 mUes 

* Pnris, Notice Hydrographique, No. 1 of 1880. 



CHAP, in.] KING GEOBaE ISLANDS. — ^KAIBSA. 87 

in length N.E. and S.W.; on the south-west side is a passage called 
Pacua. 

Many cocoanut trees were seen on the island and fresh water can be 
procured on the S.W. side, where the land is about half a mile wide. No 
soundings could be obtained with 100 fathoms of line close to the reef. 

The cyclone of 1878 caused great destruction among the cocoanut trees 
of this island. 

The east end is in lat. 14° 23' S., long. 145° 50' W. 

AHII or PEACOCK ISLAND.— The coral belt of this island 
is similar to that last described, and is about half a mile in width. The 
greatest length is about 13 miles, and there is an entrance for boats into 
the lagoon on the west side. 

The west point is in lat. 14° 33' S., long. 146° 24' W. 

NAIRSA, VLIEGEN, or DEANS ISLAND.-This 

island, called Rangiroa by the islanders of the eastern Paumotusy is 
generally known by the natives of the island as Bahiroa. 

The coral belt is very narrow and encloses an extensive lagoon about 
40\niles in length, E.S.E. and W.N.W., into which there are three passages, 
two of which are navigable by large vessels. 

Tivaru is the name of a passage for small crafl and boats situated on 
the west coast. 

Avatoru 6Ilt!railC6 is the westernmost of the two openings into 
the lagoon on the north side of Nairsa island, and is near the north-west 
point. This passage is navigable by large ships, but it is advisable to go 
through with a favourable tide, as the eddies are sometimes strong ; the least 
depths obtained by the French war vessel La Mesange were 6^ fathoms 
at the entrance, and 8f fathoms near the inner part of the passage. 

A little northward of the inner point of the passage, on the east side, is 
a mole or wharf constructed of coral slabs, at which small vessels unload 
when prevented by the current from entering the lagoon.* The village of 
Atimaro commences at this inner point, and extends eastward for 500 or 
600 yards. At the eastern end of the \'illage a second mole has been built 
upon some reefs nearly level with the water, and enclosing a space in 
which the native small craft take shelter from the heavy sea which sets in 
with strong winds from the south-eastward. 

The village of Atimaro contains 200 inhabitants, who possess ten 
schooners of from 8 to 12 tons. The village formerly on the western shore 
of the passage has been abandoned. 



* This mole was demolished by the cyclone of the year 187S. Paris, Notice Hydro- 
graphiqae, No. 1 of 1680. 



88 PAUMOTTJ OB LOW ABCHIPBLAGO. [chip-ib. 

FaciDg the passage on entering is a wooded isl^t, on either side of whicti 
there is a channel. Shoal water extends off the north-east point of this 
islet, and also off the inner east point of the passage, but both dangers are 
distinetly visible. 

La Melange used the eastern channel, between the islet and the village, 
in going from the outer to the inner anchorage. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage ia the paesuge off the outer wharf, 
in 83 faihunis. The strength of the ebb stream here was found to be 
3^ knots. The inner anchorage off the east end of Atimaro vill^e is about 
200 yards off the second mole, and a little to the northward of it. 

Entering hy the eastern channel, give the village point a berth of 80 to 
100 yards. 

Small craft anchor about 80 yards from the wharf in 5^ falhomg, and 
secure to an anchor on the coral northward of the wharf. 

With easterly winds the currents, which usually set to the westward, are 
feeble near Nairsa island. 

Tiputa or Atifareura entrance is the easternmost of the two 

openings on the north side of Bahiroa island ; it is narrower than Avatoni 
enti'ance, moi-e tortuous, and the currents are stronger, but is repoi-ted 
practicable for large vessels. There is a bare islet a little westward of the 
inner part of the passage. 

On Ilic north shore of the lagoon, and at about half a mile eastward of 
Tiputa entrance, is a small mole, which gives the native craft sufficient 
shelter ogainst the sea from the south-east. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage is about 2^ cables off shore to the 
f the mole in 10 or 11 fathoms, coral and sand, 
village is to the eastward of Tiputa entrance ; the inhabitants 
0, who possess 12 schooners of from 6 to 15 tons. 
Ivatoru and Tiputa entrances the tidal streams cause strong rips 
(opape), which are dangerous for boats; during Ihe Hood they 
at the inner parts of the entrances, and during the ebb near the 

>rs. — A coral bank was seen at about 3 miles S.S.E, of the 
let of Avatoru ; and a second bank lying about S. by E. J E. 
ita entrance, distant 8 miles, which the natives report to be of a 
ape, abont 150 or 200 yards in diameter, and to have 2j fathoms. 
langers in the lagoon are known either to the natives or pilots. 
lings of 17 and 19 fathoms were taken about Smiles south of 



• Paris, Annalei Hvdmgraphiques, No. 533 of 187<. 



CHAP. in.l NAIBSA.— MAKATEA. 89 

TIKEHAU or KRUSENSTERN ISLAND is somewhat 

circular in form, about 10 miles in diameter, and distinguished by having 
a small island thickly overgrown with trees, situated in the centre of the 
lagoon. . ' 

Tuhdiava pass on the west side is suitable for the largest vessels, 
and is in lat. 14° 58' S., long. 148° 14' W. 

MATAHIVA or LAZSAREFF ISLAND is the western- 
most island of the Low archipelago, and was discovered hj Bellingshausen 
in 1820. There is a boat entrance on the north-west side. The island is 
well wooded, and in the north-west part there is a village. 

The west point is in lat. 14^ 54' S., long. 148° 40' W. 

MAKATEA or AURORA ISLAND, the north point of 

which is in lat. 15° 48' S., long. 148^ 13' W., is a coral island uplifted ; 
the perpendicular clift' appears worn into caverns, and the height is 
230 feet, rendering it visible for a distance of 20 miles. The coral shelf is 
500 feet in width on the north side of the island, and gradually diminishes 
in width towards the western part. The north, east, and west sides of the 
island present perpendicular cliffs, but the south side descends less 
abruptly. The island is covered with vegetation and gome large trees,, 
and portions ai'e cultivated.* 

On the western side of the island there are several small openings in the 
encircling reef, through which landing is practicable for boats during 
strong easterly winds. When between two very wooded summits on the 
western side of the island, the reef will be found steep-to, and can be 
approached to within 60 yards, thus avoiding the heavy sea and strong 
current. 

There is said to be an anchorage northward of the west point of the 
island, t 

The village is situated in a bay in the middle of the east coast of the 
i£>land and consists of about 30 houses. 



* Paris, Notice Hydrographique, No. 14 of 1882. 
t Paris, Annales Hydrographique, No. 533 of 1874. 



CHAPTER IV. 
Marquesas islands. — Soattbebd iSLAtms nbae the 

EQT7AT0E. 





VARIATION IN 1885. 


Fntu-hivft 


- I 55 E. Penrhyn ialand 


Eiao - 


- 5 25 E. Jarvis island 


Cnroline islaad - 


- 6 40 E. Palmyra island 



MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 
The Mar<iuesas aixibipelago is composed of two tolei'ably distinct groups, 

lying in a general north- west and south-east direction, between the parallels 

of 7° 50' and 10" 35' S., and the meridians of 138° 25' and 140° 50' W. 

They are all high and of volcanic origin, and may be seen in cleai- weather 

at a distance of irom 50 to 60 miles.* 

The southern group was discovered by Mendana in 1595, who named 

them the Islas de Marquesas de Mendoga iu honour of the viceroy of 
■u, who had despatched the expedition. 

rhe southernmost island was first sighted and named La Madalena by 
ndana, who imagined it to be a portion of the Solomon islands dia- 
ered by him twenty-eight years previously. His first interviews with 
natives were friendly, but the brutality of one of his men, led to an 
break and great slaughter. 

Three others of the southeui group were also named by him San Pedro, 
ita Christina, and La Diiniinica. The remaining island, named Fatu-huku 
Sood island, was named by Cook in 1774 after a midshipman, afterwards 
■d Hood, who first saw it. 

Dhe north-west group, consisting of six islands named respectively 
-pu or Adams island, Ua-Huka or Washington island, Nukuhiva or 
rchand island, Motu-iti or Hergest rocks, Eiao or Masse, and Hatatu 
Chanal island, was not discovered till 1791 by Captain Ingraham, of the 
lericanship Hope, of Boston. 

Sec Admiralty charts; — Pacific ocean, general. No. 2683; Pacific ocean, S.E. sheet 
783 i Marqueaai ialunile, No. 1640. 



CHAP. IV.] .GENERAL REMARKS* 91 

A few weeks later^ Captain Marchand, of the French ship Lm SolidCy 
also disoovered them, and called one of them Marchand island, naming the 
whole group lies de la Revolution. 

In 1792 Lieutenant Hergest in the transport Doedalm surveyed them, 
and in 1793 Captain Josiah Roberts, of the American ship Jefferson y 
gave them the name of Washington islands, a name aldo applied to 
Ua-Huka by Ingraham, their first discoverer* 

The Marquesas, although of volcanic formation, have no active volcanoes, 
and do not appear to be subject to eaithquakes ; they are all high and the 
land is very irregular and broken. The greater number of the mountains 
are in the interior, and ridges extend from them to the coasts, between 
which are valleys more or less fertile, in which the different tribes are 
established. The natives do not appear to have any form of government, 
each tribe living separately and independently, from this reason quarrels 
and wars are frequent. At different periods various missionaries have 
endeavom*ed to establish themselves, but with little success 5 this is probably 
owing in a great measure to the bad advice and example of the white 
deserters from calling vessels, which people are found living amongst them 
in the same manner, and aiding in their disputes and wars. 

The sovereignty of the Marquesas group was ceded to France in May 
1842, and a military colony was established at Tai-o-hae bay in Nukuhiva, 
but the result was in no way commensurate with the expense of the estab- 
lishment and it was abandoned in 1859. 

The group is now governed by a French resident at Tai-o-hae. His 
orders are carried out by the native chiefs. The inhabitants of Dominica 
were troublesome until 1880, when their submission was secured by a 
military expedition under Admiral Du Petit Thouars.* 

Nukuhiva or Marchand is the principal island of the group, and I'ai-o- 
hae is now the principal settlement. The whole of the group is peculiarly 
adapted for the growth of cotton, which is sent either to New Zealand or 
San Francisco for shipment to Europe. 

A line of American schooners, fore and aft rigged, having a contract 
with the French government ibr carrying the mails, run monthly from San 
Francisco to Tahiti, calling at Tai-o-hae, making the passage to the latter 
place in seventeen days, and thence to Tahiti in four days ; the return 
passage from Tahiti direct to San Francisco is accomplished in twenty- 
seven to thirty-three days. These schooners bring as cargo, lumber and 
sundries, returning with cotton and fungus, the latter article being for the 
Chinese market. 



* U.S. Hydrographic Notice, No. 62 of 1882, 



92 MARQUESAS ISLANDS. [chap. nr. 

The climate of these islands must always be very sultry ; notwith- 
standing this it appears very healthy and the Europeans living here state 
that such is the case, an assertion which is justified by titeir appearance. 

WINDS. — From April to October the south-east trade wind, called by 
the natives tua-to-ha prevails in the vicinity of these islands. The general 
direction is E.S.E., but it varies between east and S.S-E. During the rainy 
season, from November to January, the wind is more to the southward, and 
fresh S.S.W. winds with squalls are experienced, lasting three or four days. 
From October to April, the prevailing wind, called by the natives tin, is 
from E.N.E. veering and hauling between east and N.N.E. The wind 
sometimes gets to the west of north, when it is apt to turn into a gale. 
Gales are, however, of rare occurrence. 

THE CURRENTS are usually to the westward, between W.N.W. 
and W.S.W., with a velocity of about half a knot an hour, sometimes, how- 
ever, attaining a velocity of 3 knots. During westerly winds their direction 
sometimes changes. After a week of north-westerly winds, a current 
setting to the eastward at the rate of 3 knot« an hour was observed in 
Bordelais strait, 

DIRECTIONS. — All these islands are high and steep to, and only 
ordinary precautions are necessary in navigating ; sailing vessels, however, 
should not approach the land too closely, even with a fresh breeze, as the 
wind sometimes dies away suddenly and the swell and current set towards 
the projecting points. Vessels working to windward for Nukuhiva should 
never stand to the northward of the parallel of that island, as there they are 
likely to encounter calms and strong westerly currents. When boating to 
places situated to windward it is best to skirt the shore as closely as pos- 
sible, as a considerable counter-current maybe found, but the heavy broken 
seas encountered near the projecting points might render the course unad- 
visable for a loaded boat. 

Pilots are hardly necessary in this group, but they may greatly assist 
sailing vessels in making a port by their knowledge of puffs and shifts of 
wind. 

Supplies. — Cattle are abundant on the islands of Nukuhiva and 
Tau-ata. The Roman Catholic mission has about 1,500 sheep on the island 
of Ua-pu, and a number on Hiva-oa or Dominica Island. Eiao is also stocked 
with cattle. 

Population. — The result of a census taken in 1879 gave the total 
population of the Marquesas islands as 5,754, of whom 109 were Europeans, 
69 Chinese, 132 Polynesians, and the remainder natives. 

PATU-HIVA or MAGD ALENA ISLAND, the southern- 
most of the Marquesas group, is 8 miles in length, north and south, and 
4 miles wide ; the highest point is 3,675 feet above the sea. 



CHAP. IV.] DIRECTIONS. — FATU-HIVA. 93 

The eastern side of the island is extremely rugged, steep ridges coming 
down from the central mountain, and terminating in high precipices over 
the sea. Very few of the valleys or gorges appear to reach the beach, so 
that, independent of a dangerous surf which dashes against the rncks^ 
landing would be impracticable. On the north and south sides of the 
island, the land slopes more regularly towards the sea, but there is no 
landing. 

Point Venus, on the south side, is a perpendicular rocky cliff about 
1,900 feet high overhanging the sea, which breaks within a few yards of 
its base ; from some points of view the break assumes the appearnnce of a 
reef extending out further than it really does.* 

AncllOrEgeS. — There are two anchorages on the west coast ; one 
in Omoa or Bon Repos bay, near point Venus, and the other in Hana-vave 
or Virgins bay about 4 miles to the northward. Both bays are entirely 
open to the westward, and when westerly winds are threatened, it is 
necessary to put to sea. 

Omoa or Bon RepOS bay is easily found, being at the south- 
west extremity of the island ; the northern headland is a point of bla<!k 
rock 100 feet high. The anchorage is not of the best, and a heavy surf 
rolls continually on the beach, but landing can be effected on the rocks on 
either side of the bay, according to the direction of the swell.f 

Directions. — ^ slender rock of remarkable appearance rises vertically 
above the huts that line the shore ; steer for this rock bearing east ; the 
gendarmerie flag-staff will soon be seen and should be kept open a little 
to the northward of the rock. Anchor near this . alignment in 9 or 10 
fathoms, 1| cables from the shore. 

A stream which comes down about the middle of the beach produces 
quite a current, setting out of the bay .J 

Supplies. — Water can be obtained, but with difficulty, as boats must 
lay a considerable distance from the beach where the stream comes down. 
The valley, which winds up among the hills from the bottom of the bay, is 
very beautiful, being covered with the rich foliage of tropical fruit trees, 
whilst the native cottages and huts, sheltered under the bread-fruit, cocoa- 
nut, and orange trees, add greatly to the attractiveness of the scene. 

Fruit of all descriptions are to be procured in suflicient quantities to 
refresh a large ship's company ; but meat and vegetables are scarce, pigs 
and poultry being the only animal food. The inhabitants are about 600 
in number. 



* Captain R. A. Powell, H.M.S. Topaze, 1867. 
f See plan on Admiralty chart, No. 1640. 



I U. S. Hydrographic Notice, No. 62 of 1882. 



94 MARQUESAS ISLANDS. [chap.iv. 

The men, who are of ordinary stature, with good features, are rendered 
hideous by tatooing; the women are fairer than the men, and pleasant 
looking, as they are only tatooed on the face, with a few blue marks on the 
lips.* 

Hana-Vave or Virgins bay affords better anchorage than the 
foregoing ; there is also less swell, and landing is easier.f 

Directions. — Having made out the mission church, which can be 
seen from a considerable distance, keep it just open of the high land to the 
northward about E. J N. Anchor in from 19 to 23 fathoms soon after 
the outer coast of the island is shut in by the south-west point of the 
bay. 

The holding ground is good and the squalls though violent are not 
dangerous, they blow out of the bay and vessels only risk being blown off 
the land. 

There is a sandy beach at the head of the bay, where landing is almost 
always easy. Boats can also land alongside some flat black rocks on the 
north side at the foot of some cliffs from 250 to 400 feet high. 

The southern extremity of the beach is in lat. 10° 27' 6" S., long. 
138° 39' 5" W. 

Supplies. — Fruit, pigs, and poultry can be obtained. Water is 
abundant an<l can be obtained without difficulty. 

Tides. — It is high water at full and change at about 3 hours 50 minutes. 
The rise and fall about 3 feet.]: 

Caution. — Sailing vessels passing to leewai'd of Fatu-hiva should not 
approach the land nearer than 3 miles as they are likely to be exposed to 
very strong squalls off Hana-vave and afterwards to calms and a heavy 

swell.J 

THOMASSET ROCK, discovered by the Ariane in 1844, is 
situated 14^ miles E. by N. J N, from the north point of Fatu-hiva in 
lat. 10° 21' S., long. 138° 25' W, The top is 13 feet above the sea and 
great caution is necessary when navigating in this vicinity at night. 

MOTANE or SAN PEDRO is 5 miles in length N.N.W. and 
S.S.E., 1,640 feet high and wooded on the summit. Separated from the 
S.E. point by a narrow boat channel is a large high rock, in lat. 10° 1' S., 
long. 131° 48' W. 

The island has no lixed inhabitants. 



* Captain R. A. Powell, H.M.S. Topaze,\%^1, 
t See plan on Admiralty chart, No. 1640. 
J U. S. Hydrographic Notice, No. 62 of 1882. 



CHAP. IV.] THOMASSET ROCK. — TAU-ATA. 95 

TAU-ATA or SANTA CHRISTINA ISLAND is 

9 miles long in a north and south direction, and 5 miles across in the 
widest part. - A narrow ridge of hills, of considerable height, extends the 
whole length of the island, the highest summit attaining a height of 3,280 
feet. There are other ridges, which rise from the sea, and with an equal 
ascent, join the main ridge. These are separated by deep narrow valleys 
watered by fine streams of excellent water.* 

The inhabitiwits in 1880 were estimated at 450. 

The formation of the island, having a steep shore on the east, and 
numerous valleys on the west sides, closely resembles Magdalena island, 
and the facilities for watering and obtaining supplies are about the same. 
There are wild cattle on the mountains, but difficult to get at, and still 
more difficult to carry away when shot. 

VaitahU or Resolution bay is situated near tlie middle of the 
west side of the island and under the highest land. The French settled in 
this bay in 1842, but it is now entirely abandoned^ and fort, houses, and 
gardens have fallen into a state of decay. The south point of the bay is 
a steep rock of considerable height, terminating at the top in a peaked hill. 
The north point is not so high, and rises with a more gentle slope. 

There are two sandy beaches in the bay, divided from each other by a 
rocky point. In each there is a rivulet of excellent water, the northern 
cove named Vaitahu is the most convenient for wood and watering ; here 
there is a small tiraterfall mentioned by Quiros ; the village in the 
southern cove is named Hanamiai. 

The sea breeze is rarely felt at this anchorage, but with northerly wind 3 
there is swell enough to cause a vessel to roll disagreeably. The rare 
winds from west and W.N.W., blow directly into the bay, but they do not 
produce a correspondingly heavy sea, and with ordinary precautions there 
need be no fear of dragging.* 

DirOCtionS. — The best marks for finding this bay are fort Halley, 
which is built on a hill and can be seen from along distance when bearing 
between east and S.E., and two large white houses on the beach. In any 
case a vessel placing herself on the meridian of the west point of Tau-ata, 
and running north or south until the west extreme of Dominica island 
bears N. by W. J W., or until Bordelais strait appears completely closed, 
will be off Resolution bay. 

Sailing vessels from the eastward with the trade wind should pass 
northward of the island and run down the coast. The breeze drawing 
along the land will carry them almost to the entrance. Entering the bay 



* See plan on Admiralty chart, Nc. 1640. 



96 MABQUESAS ISLANDS. [chap. tr. 

they should skirt, as closely as possible, the northern point, which is 
«teep-to. Whilst working in they should watch the puffs carefully, as 
vessels are often struck by the gusts from the hills when in stays. 

Anchorage. — The Topaze anchored in 26 fathoms, with west point of 
Dominica island bearing N.N.W. ; north point of bay N. by W. ; south point 
of bay S. by W. ; and extreme of land S. by W. \ W. ; and remained here two 
days without experiencing any difficulty from the sweil, or squalls from the 
mountains. There is no doubt, however, that a heavy swell sets in from 
the south-west.* 

The best anchorage is in from 10 to 13 fathoms, sand, off the ravine 
with the two cocoa-nut palms. The violent gusts down the valley may cause 
a vessel anchored on a sloping bottom to drag off, but if anchored well to the 
northward she will clear the south point of the bay. 

Landing. — ^Boats can land on the beach in the southern part of the 
bay, where there is no coral, while the weather is fine, but the usual 
landing place is at the steps cut in the rock to the northward of the 

beach.t 

The landing-place — constructed by the French authorities at con- 
siderable expense — ^has been washed away, and there are other marks of 
destruction by the waves. Reports say that vessels have been driven to 
sea by the force of the violent gusts down the valleys, and altogether the 
bay has such a bad character that whalers seldom enter, although it is 
believed to be the only place where ships are advised to anchor. 

Hapatoni bay, two miles soath of Resolution bay, is a bad 
anchorage occasionally used by whalers. A rock shaped like a tower on 
the south point of the bay, marks the entrance. Boats land in a little 
creek sheltereii by a point. A small stream of inferior water runs over 
the rocks, where landing is difficult and taking in water a complicated 
operation. 

BORDELAIS STRAIT, separating Tau-ata from Hiva-oa, is 
2^ miles wide, and both sides are clear and safe. There is always a fresh 
breeze and a relatively rough sea in this channel. The current sets 
generally to the westward with a velocity of from 2 to 3 knots, at which 
time it is almost impossible to beat through to the eastward. When 
westerly winds have prevailed for some time the current is reversed and 
sets eastward iiith about the same velocitv.t 

HIVA-OA or DOMINICA ISLAND.-This island is the 

most fertile and populous, as well as the most important for its production, 



* Captain R. A. Powell, H.M.S. Topaze, 1867. 
t U. S. Hydrographia Notice, Ko. 62 of 1882. 



CHAP. IV.] BOKJ>ELAIS STRAIT.-— HIVA-OA. 97 

of the whole group. It i3 21 miles loug east and west, with an average 
breadth of 6 miles. 

The French have no settlement on Dominica, but there ai'e two or 
three priests on the island, one of whom stated that they had entirely- 
failed in making converts, and that in his opinion there was not a 
native Christian. He also described the inhabitants as being inveterate 
cannibals, always at war with each other, much addicted to drunkenness 
and other bad habits. The priests had succeeded in cultivating cotton, and 
had lately sold theii' produce for 2,000/. 

The island has some well- watered beautiful valleys, and was described as 
being extremely rich, and well suited for coffee, sugar, and other tropical 
productions.* 

In 1880 the native population of Hiva-oa was estimated nt 2,500. 

Cape Balguerie is the eastern point; the hill rises above it to the 
height of 1,280 feet, and at the foot are scveml isolated rocks, the 
northernmost of which is in the shape of a truncated cone. The coast 
to the westward of this consists of barren cliff and white sandy beach 
without shelter or inhabitants for a distance of 5 miles, at which distance 
is situated Perigot bay. 

Pu&mau or Perigot bay may be recognised by its wooded 
amphitheatre and the mountains round, the western one of which is 
2,820 feet high. The hill on the east side is 575 feet high and &ur- 
mouoted. by an obelisk or column. The Roman Catholic mission and the 
fort on the west side of the bay are also good marks. f 

About 1^ cables from the east point are the Jacquemart rocks, but 
coming from the westward they cannot be distinctly made out. Although 
the depth between these rocks and the point is from 7 to 11 fathoms, it is 
advisable to pass westward of them. Sailing vessels should invariably 
observe this rule as the wind is very apt to die away near the land. 

AncIlOragO. — ^The best anchorage is in from 10 to 12 fathoms with 
the following beai*ings : the west point of the bay in line with the east 
point of Hood island N. by W. \ W. ; and the obelisk on the east point of 
the bay E. | S. 

During the years 1880 and 1881 the French war vessel Chasseur 
anchored frequently at Perigot bay in all kinds of weather. There is 
always a swell, and with the wind to the northward of east vessels will roll 
very disagi^eably. 

With a fresh breeze from N.E. to N.N.W. the sea becomes heavy in the 
bay. The holding ground is very good. Steamers have little difficulty in 



* Captain R. A. Powell, H .M.S. Topaze, 1867. * 
• t See plan on Admiralty chart, No. 1640. 

II 16615. O 



98 MARQUESAS ISLANDS. [cHiip.nr. 

putting to sea, but sailing vessels often find some difficulty, especially 
during the season of N.E. winds, from October to April; the land breeze 
frequently fails, and as the swell and the current set directly against the 
west point there is great difficulty in doubling it. 

Landing on the open beach is very difficult and often impossible. 
Boats usually land on the east side on a small beach protected by some 
rocks which extend to the south-westward ; the place is marked by a con- 
spicuous tree. The bay is very populous but has few resources. 

The Coast. — ^Proceeding along the coast to the westward there is a 
wide bay called by the natives Hana-hepu, then a small wooded bay called 
Jaone, and further on the inhabited bay of Naa-o-he. Then come Ma-tura 
and Sha-nahe bays, the latter of which is said to afford anchorage for 
small vessels , and may be recognised by the iron-wood trees which cover 
the western cape. 

Westward of Sha-nahe is the large open bight of Hana-paa-owa, where 
there is neither landing nor anchorage. There is a church and a few huts 
among the trees. 

To the westward of this bight the coast trends directly to the northward 
for a distance of about 2 miles to the northernmost point of the island. 
Beyond this point the general trend of the coast is east and west. 

Rock. — ^About 5 cables N. by E. from the north point is an isolated 
rock, just awash^ on which the sea breaks continually ; there is plenty of 
water between the rock and the coast. 

Hana-te-Eur bay lies IJ miles to the westward of the before 
mentioned rock. Coming from the westward the church in the middle of 
the beach is a good mark. Hood island bears N. f E. from the east point 
of the bay. 

The anchorage is in 6^ fathoms, midway between the two sides of the bay. 

Landing plaCO. — Boats can land without difficulty on the western 
part of the beach, near a small stream of excellent water.* 

Sana-iapa bay afibrds good anchorage^ with sufficient shelter during 
N.E. winds, and the holding ground is good. Grood marks for distinguish- 
ing this bay are Borne island, 49 feet high, situated off the west point of 
the bay, and a fine cascade, which can be seen from seaward at a distance 
of 10 miles, situated about one mile westward of the bay. The anchorage 
is in 10 or 11 fathoms, with the east point of the bay in line with Hood 
island. Boats land on the eastern end of the beach, behind a little point of 
rocks, around which, and at a distance of about 100 yards, there is a line 
of breakers which must be left on the port hand going in.f 

A fine stream of water fiows into the bay close to the landing place. 

* U. S. Hydrographic Notice, No. 62 of 1882. 
f See plan on Admiralty chart, No. 1640. 



OHAF. IV.] HAKA-IAPA BAY. — HANA-MBNU BAY. 99 

Caution. — The current sets generally to the westward, and the wind 
dies away at ths entrance of the bay, giving place to the land breeze. 
Sailing vessels, therefore, entering this bay, should work well to windward 
and run in with a free wind, passing about 200 yards from the east point. 
The passage between Borne island and ^the west point is dangerous for 
sailing vessels.* 

Hana-menulbay is situated near the north-west point of Hiva-oa ; 
it is a double bay separated by a high cliff of dark rocks like an enormous 
tower. The bay is much used by whalers, and may be recognised, even at 
night, by the high cliff before mentioned. Sailing vessels can make this 
anchorage without difficulty, for the sea breezes draw round the east point 
of the bay. In putting to sea, they should take advantage of the land 
breeze, or kedge out.f 

With the wind from S.E. to east the sea is smooth ; with a N.E. wind 
the swell is felt in the bay, but the sea is rarely heavy. The land breeze 
ordinarily makes at about 7 p.m. and subsides at daylight. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage is in the eastern bay, in 11 fathoms, 
with the west point of the bay a little open of Tower rock. Landing is 
easy and there is an abundance of good water. 

!r Coast. — ^From the western point of Hana-menu bay, the west coast of 
Hiva-oa curves away to the southward and south-eastward for about 12 
miles, to the south-east point ^of the island, named Hiva-oa point. Im- 
mediately to the north-eastward of the point is a deep bight named 
Vi-pi-hai or Traitors bay. 

In the north-west part of the bay is the small rocky island of Hanake, 
which is about 120 feet high and very steep to. 

To the westward of the island the coasts of the bay are constantly ex* 
posed to the winds and sea, and anchoring is impossible near the shore ; 
landing is always very difficult, if not impossible. 

Taa-hU-kU bay is situated to the eastward of Hanake island, and is 
not easy to make out if coming from the eastward. 

An excellent mark for recognizing this bay is a steep grassy slope on the 
west side of the head of the bay, with several houses and buildings on the 
T^ummit, called a fort by the authorities in charge. In 1883 the fort con- 
tained four brass howitzers, and was manned by an officer and 35 men.;|:n 

The extreme of Hiva-oa point in line with the eastern extreme of Tau- 
ata island, leads nearly up to the entrance. Having left the island about 
300 yards on the port hand, the entrance will be seen ahead ; the western 



* U. S. Hydrographic Notice, No. 62 of 1882. 

t See plas on Admiralty ehart, No. 1640. 

X Bemark book, Lieutenant D- A. Wright, H.M.S. Kingfisher, 1883. 

G 2 



100 MAEQTJESAS ISLANDS. [chap, ir, 

entrance point being black, and the eastern a low flat point. A fort con- 
structed on the summit of a hill on the west side and a roiid which runs 
along the west side of the bay are equally good guides. 

The bay is well sheltered, and there is good anchorage for vessels of 
medium size ; a large vessel could haul in and moor in all security. The 
holding gmund is good. The sea breezes are never felt, but the swell is- 
sometimes disagreeable. With the wind from S^E. to east, the sea break- 
ing on the west side of the bay is thrown back against the east ijide and 
sometimes produces a strong chopping sea.* 

AllC]lOrag6. — ^The usual anchorage is in the middle of the bay in 5 
or 6 fathoms. Sailing vessels should skirt the east point at a distance of 
about 40 yards, and their headway will thus generally carry them up to 
the anchorage. The land bi^eezes, blowing from north to N.E., generally 
prevail during the night ; they attain their greatest strength in the morning, 
and fall between 8 and 9 o'clock. Sailing vessels going out may profit by 
this circumstance. 

Vessels not wishing to enter the bay, can anchor to the southward of the 
entrance, in 17 fathoms, muddy sand, about one mile eastward of Hanake 
island, with the following bearings : north point of Motane, S.E. by E. ^ E. ; 
east point of Tau-ata, S. ^ E. 

Landing place. — Access to the beach is often difficult. The best 
place is on the beach on the cast side. A stream of water on the west side 
affords abundance of good water during the rainy season. 

Currents. — ^The currents set generally to the westward along the 
south coast of Hiva-oa, but in Traitors bay, they follow the trend of 
the coast and set towards Hiva-oa point. After rain their strength is 
considerably increased owing to the numerous streams which fall into the 
bay. 

Coast. — Between Taa-hu-ku bay and cape Balguerie there is no good 
anchorage, the coast generally consisting of perpendicular cliffs of con- 
siderable heightf 

PATU-HUKU or HOOD ISLAND.— This island was dis- 
covered on board Cook's vessel, the Resolution, in 1774, by a midshipman 
who was afterwards Lord Kood, and lies about 15^ miles north of Hiva-oa. 
It is 1,180 feet high but of small extent, and consists of a single high, 
and at the summit, fiat rock, with a gentle slope from north to south. 

D'Urville says that about one mile to the N.N.W., is a sunken rock 
which breaks in fine weather. The natives state that landing is impossible. 
Canoes from the neighbouring islands occasionally resort here for fishing 
purposes. 

* See plan on Admiralty chart, No. 1640. 
t U.S. Hydrographic Notice, No. 62 of 1882. 



CHAP. IV.] PATU-HUKU. — TJA-PU. 101 

UA-PU or ADAMS ISLAND.— This island is about the same 
size as Tau-ata and equally elevated, bold, and rocky. The summits of 
many of the mountains present conspicuous columns, spires, and pinnacles 
of rock ; the highest point is 4,042 feet high. In the south-cast part 
of the island, is a remarkable table mountain, topped on each side 
by a lofty spire. On the south side of the island there are some islets of 
volcanic rock which have been named from their respective forms, Obelisk 
and Flat island. Off the N.E. point are two barren islets, with a dangerous 
boat passage inside them. Northward of these islets, at a distance of from 
1^ to 2 miles, the depth is from 17 to 23 fathoms, sand bottom. The 
western side of the island abounds in populous villages and there are several 
convenient anchorages. 

Ha*ka*lxe tau. — This port lies on the north side of the Island directly 
under the western peak, and affords a fairly good anchorage with winds 
irom north-east to south. Approaching from the eastward ; the palms 
around the huts, the red rocks on the eastern side, the reddish islet in 
the bay, and the hut on the west point of the bay are good marks. 
Farther eastward is a red cliff with a cavern. 

Landing is easy at a natural rocky mole, at the mouth of a small river.* 

VaieO bay, situated southward of the N. W. point of the island, is 
wide, but not deep. With the usual easterly winds there is perfect shelter 
and good anchorage in 1 1 fathoms, but of course untenable with westerly 
winds.* 

The best anchorage for large vessels is with the following beaiings : — 
North point of bay, N. 45° W.; middle of the N.E. bight, N. 29° E.; 
augar-loaf, S. 2° E. ; small craft can go further in to the north-eastward 
and anchor in 8 or 9 fathoms. 

Southward of this bay is the small bight of Akaoto, where small craflt can 
find temporary shelter. 

From Yaieo bay the coast trends to the south-eastward for about .5 miles, 
past the bights of Hakamaii, Apateki and Hikea, in which vessels may dud 
temporary anchorage in fine weather. It is generally calm, with occasional 
squalls, along the whole west coast, so that sailing vessels Hud some 
difficulty in reaching the places they intend visiting.f 

Akatau or Bay of Friends, ot the s.w. point of the island, 

affords fairly good anchorage ; but there are often heavy gusts from the 
S.E. and always a somewhat heavy swell. To the southward is u remark* 
able sugar-loaf rock, called the Obelisk. The anchorage is in the second 
bight to the northward of this rock, and may be recognised by the native 
huts, and a small chapel in the southern part of the bight. 



* See plan en Admiralty chart, No. 1640. 

f Paris Notice Hydrograpkique, No. 30 of IS 83. 



102 MABQTJB8AS ISLANDS. [chap.it. 

At this poiiit of the island the wind is generalljsoath, bkming oa Aare ; 
fwiling veHsels should therefore anchor abreast the bight, hallway between 
the two rocky pointe, so as to be able to leave at anj time. Steam Tessels 
can go rather farther into the bay. 

Landing may be obtained on the rocks to the right of the shingle beach, 
but with some difficulty. 

The weather Ride of (he island trends to the northward for about 5 ndlea 
to the N.E. point, passing in succession the bays of Hohoi, Panmea^ and 
Hakamni, fully exposed to the trade wind, without anchorage, and where 
the landing is very difficult.* 

HakahEU bfty. — From the N.E. point the coast of Ua-pu trends to 
the W.N.W. for about 4 miles. The second bight irom the point is 
Hakahau bay, where the Roman Catholic missionaries have their principal 
cstabllshuiont. The anchorage is bad (coral bottom) and should only be 
xmnl in cases of absolute necessity. Landing may be effected on a sand 
beach In the S.E. part, but generally with difficulty on account of the surf. 

From the offing, neither the native huts nor the mission buildings are 
visible iis they are concealed by the trees. In communicating with the 
shore, vessels should heave to well to windward as the current soon drifts 
them to the westward. 

Ooast. — Near tlie North point is a flat islet, between which and the 
Mhoro the current sots to the westward with considerable strength, this 
vicinity should therefore be avoided. 

Westward of the islet the general direction of the coast is S.W. by W., 
first forming two unequal bights, with sand beaches at their heads, and 
Hcparated by a massive point of rocks. The easternmost bight is that of 
Aneau.* 

AndaU bay. — The entrance to this bay is wide, but divided by a 
reddish rock on which the sea always breaks. In choosing the eastern 
passage, care should be taken to keep close to the eastern shore^ half a 
cable from which not less than 6^ fathoms will be obtained. In 1876 
the French despatch vessel Le Vaudreuil obtained 4 and 5 fathoms 
in the middle of the pass, and then 6^ fathoms immediately after passing 
the rock. 

The western pass is much wider and deeper (11 fathoms almost 
everywhere) and is preferable for steam vessels. In the inner part of 
the bay, the sea is smooth with winds between S.E. and E.N.E., but the 
swell enters more or less ; however the anchorage is not very good, and 
unless compelled by necessity, large vessels do better not to pass the night 
there. Anchorage may be obtained in the eastern part of the bay in Q\ 



♦ Paris Notice Hydrographique, No. 30 of 188?. 



CHAP. IV.] ANEAU BAY. — TJA-HUKA 103 

fathoms, but is better to the S.S.W. of the rock in the pass ; the swoll 
may be heavier, perhaps, but there is more room for swinging, and it is 
easier to get out under sail. Landing may generally be effected without 
difficulty in the N.E. part of the bay.* 

UA-HUKA or WASHINGTON ISLAND is 7i miles 

long, east and west, and about 5 miles broad. On the south side there are 
two bights in which anchorage may be obtained, the principal one is 
named Hannay bay. 

The west side of the island appears most fruitful, and off the S. W. end is 
situated Shavay bay. 

Slxavay bay. — Off the S.W. point of the island is Height islet, 
or Hemeni, conical in shape and about 1^ miles in circumference ; and 
inside it a smaller islet called Hat islet, or Teuaua, both of which are 
covered with sea birds. To the northward of these islets is an anchorage 
called Shavay bay, which affords good shelter with winds from North to 
S.E. Vessels are protected from the swell by the islets, and the depth is 
moderate (11 to 16 fathoms). f 

Anchorage may be obt.dned anywhere between Height islet and a sand- 
beach on Ua-Huka ; but vessels are cautioned not to anchor to the east- 
ward of Height islet as the bottom is said to be rocky and uneven there. 

In 1880, the French gunboat Chasseur anchored in 13 fathoms with the 
following bearings: centre of Height islet, S. 13° E.; centre of Hat islet, 
S. 60° E. ; East point of bay. East. The only inconvenience of this anchorage 
is, that it is nearly 3 miles from the nearest inhabited part, which is 
Invisible or Yaitake bay.* 

Invisible or Vaitake bay is very appropriately so called, as, 
not until right opposite the entrance can it be recognised, and the sand- 
beach at the head of the bay made out. 

A short distance eastward of the two islets which form the S.W. 
anchorage is a black cape about the same height as Height islet, and 
which at a distance has the appearance of an islet in the shape of a wedge 
inclined towards the land. A little further to the eastward, between two 
black cliffs, is Invisible bay, which lies in a N.N.W. and S.S.E, direction. 

At the entrance, which is very narrow, there is always a heavy, choppy 
sea. Only small sailing vessels can frequent this bay, although there is 
water enough for large ships (17 fathoms at the entrance). Small 
steamers might enter and moor across, but there is no room for swinging. 

With winds from North to East the sea is perfectly calm inside the bay ; 



♦ Paris Notice Hydrographique, No. 30 of 1882. 
t 566 plan on sheet No.. 1640. 



104i MAKQUESAS ISLANDS. [chap, iv.- 

but as soon as the wiad gets to Lhe southward of E.S-E. the Burf sets in 
between tfae two black clifis, and the place is untenable. 

The land breeze is not regular, which makes it difficult for sailing vessels 
to get out. 

At the head of the bay is a small beach, with cocoa&nt trees, and [he 
bouses of the Europeans wUo have settled tbere. In the eastern part is a, 
small river, at the mouth of which landing may easily be effected in fine 
weather. 

A little to the eostwatd of Vaitake is a smalt uninhabited bay, in front of 
which is a lurge flat rock, resembling a breakwater ; then comes a large 
bluff with a reddish horizontal band across It at two-thirds of its height. 
All this part of the coast is rugged, and studded with rocks and islets ; 
among the latter is a red islet, the sides of which are perpendicular, and 
the upper part a plane incliued towards the land.* 

Hannay bay niay be known by Motu Haane, a high sugar loaf islet, 
508 feet high, situated on the eastern side, which cannot be mistaken on 
Bccounl of the dark violet colour of the rocka.f 

The anchorage is iu 17 fathoms, with the islet bearing East. 
Outside the above anchorages, and all round tlio island, thero is said to 
be depths of 22 to 25 fathoms at distances varying between a half and 2 
milea from the shore. 

Off the north coast are several small detached rocks. 
Population. — ^The population of Ua-Huka island was estimated al 
260 in llsSO. 

NUKUHIVA or MARCHAND ISLAND, the principal 

island of the Morquesas archipelago, is 14 miles in length from eait to 

west and 10 miles broad. It has been frequently visited and described, and 

the inhabitants are perhaps the best known of any in the archipelago. 

Full details of their manner and customs may be read wiiii interest in tlic 

9th chapter of Kruseuslem's account of the voyage of the Nadeskda aiirt 

Neva, 1800-4. The south coast contains the principal places of resort and 

chorage. It consists of lofty, ragged rocks, very steep towards the 

I firom which numerous cascades are pi-ecipitated ; amongst which, 

the southern end of the island is particularly remarkable, llie bed 

waterfall appears to be several fathoms wide, and the water 

tated from a rook over 2,000 feet high. This cascade forms the 

rhich empties itself into port Tai-oa. 

chain of rocks composing the south coast is connected with the 
' of the island, but westward of the southern point the coast is 
nd flatter, and rises gradually towards the centre. 

• Vari* Notice Hjdrc^phlquc, No. fO of 1882. 
t Set plui om sheet No. Ifl 40. . 



cnAP. iv.] NUKUHIVA, — COMPTROLLER BAY. 105 

Oh the south side are three harbours, where ships may lie in perfect 
safety, named respectively, Comptroller bay, Anna Maria bay, and port 
Tai-oa. Between the two latter are two bights or bays, which however do 
not afford anchorage, being full of rocks and exposed to the wind. This 
south coast of Nukuhiva may be approached within a mile, there being a 
depth of from 35 to 50 fathoms, over a fine sandy bottom. 

The island of Nukahiva offers great resources for cultivation, for the 
valleys are broad, well -watered, and possess rich soil; tropical fruits 
abound as in the other islands, but the guava, recently introduced, is fast 
overrunning the land, and destroying the bread-fruit and many other 
valuable trees. In 1864-65, the pmall pox raged hero with great virulence, 
and carried off all but a few hundreds of the natives; in the Haopaa 
and Taipi valleys, where the population numbered neaily 2,000, only 
about 150 are left. These valleys have been purchased by an English 
land company, but as yet no steps have been taken to people or cultivate 
them.* 

The total number of inhabitants in Nukuhiva in 1880 was estimated at 
800. 

Cape Martin or TikapO is the south-east point of Nukuhiva, 
and is very abrupt, being capped by masses of rock in the form of a tower, 
which, when seen from the south-westward, appears to incline towards the 
sea. 

The Te-oho-te-kea or Sail rock, which lies 600 yards south of the cape, 
may be taken for a boat under sail, when standing out against the sky. 

Comptroller bay, immediately westward of cape Martin, is about 
2 miles across, and divided at the head into three coves, which run in a 
N.N. W. direction. Vessels generally anchor in these coves, as outside them 
the swell is heavy and the depth from 26 to 30 fathoms.f 

lluumi is the easternmost cove, in which the sea is usually calm and. 
landing easy on the sand. 

Hanga Haa, the middle cove, runs in more than 2 miles, and the best 
anchorage is a little northward of the bluff point which separates it from 
the next bight to the westward. 

This latter is divided in two, in the northei^nmost of which a small 
vessel may anchor. 

All these anchorages are sometimes difficult to reach on account of the 
wind falling, though as a rule the winds in the interior of the bay blow in 
the same direction as those outside, inclining to the south-eastward, at the 
entrance of the two western coves. 



* Captain K. A. Fowell, H.M S. Topaze, 1867. 
t See plan on Admiralty chart, No. 1640. 



106 MARQUESAS ISLANDS. [chap. iv. 

The currents near Sail rock, and at the entrance to the bay, are 
variable, and sometimes run to the eastward, but generally follow the 
direction of the trade wind. 

Anna Maria or Tai-0-lia6 bay is situated about 5 miles west- 
ward of Comptroller bay and may be known by the islands — very 
appropriately named the Sentinels — on each side of the entrance. It may 
be easily seen whether the wind blows into the bay, and if so, vessels are 
advised to go in at once. Care is necessary both in entering and leaving 
not lo approach the western shore too closely, as an easterly wind and 
pretty strong westerly current render the lee shore dangerous.* 

With a steady fresh breeze in the bay the entrance is perfectly safe, but 
with a moderate and unsteady wind, such as usually prevails in the bay 
owing to the lofty surrounding mountains, no reliance must be placed on 
these unsettled breezes, which veer in one moment from east to west, now 
coming in violent gusts and immediately after falling perfectly calm. 
Under these circumstances it is necessary for a sailing vessel to warp in or 
out, and this is the only method to be depended on. 

The east side of the bay has a decided advantage over the western for 
anchoring, the currents not having the same effect on the ship and the 
cables consequently being less liable to foul. 

Vessels are recommended to moor here, with the swivel, however short 
their stay, as the sudden puffs and shifts of wind (especially during the 
night) are almost sure to cause a foul anchor and the ship to drag, and 
instances are known of vessels having been detained some hours to clear 
their anchors.f 

The French have reduced their establishment here to a resident, four 
soldiers, and a captain of the port, who also acts as pilot ; the French 
authorities insist upon vessels taking the pilot, although he cannot possibly 
be of any service, as the only difficulties to contend with are baffling winds. 
The payments amount to 200 francs going in, and the same sum on leaving, 
and this charge has effectually kept out whalers that fonnerly were accus- 
tomed to frequent the bay. 

Supplies. — Good beef, vegetables, and bread can be obtained at fair 
prices. Water can be obtained from a stream on the west side of the bay, 
but with difficulty, owing to the boats being anchored well outside the surf, 
and the engine and hoses having to be sent well up the stream. 

Landing. — A stone mole, about 130 feet in length, and prolonged by 
a wooden part 148 feet long, has been constructed to the northward of 



* See plan on Admiralty chart, No. 1640. 

f Commander K. H. A. Mainwaring, H.M.S. Cameleon, 1873. 

J Captain R. A. Powell, H.M.S. Topaze, 1867. 



CHAP.rv.] TAl-0-HA]6 BAY.— PORT TAI-OA. 107 

fort Collet. Except when eddies occurs small craft can go alongside the 
end of the mole without difficulty ; the latter is indicated by night by a 
green light, which renders it easily distinguishable. 

Coal. — ^There is a coal dep6t belonging to the French government at 
Tai-o-ha^, but the shipment is troublesome and take8[a long time. It is 
brought alongside by two small lighters, which scarcely carry 6 tons, 
and belong to Mr. Hart, an English trader. These lighters are loaded by 
the natives, in the small bay between the mole and fort Collet.* 

TidOS. — It is high water at full and change at 3h. 50m. ; rise'of tide 
4 ft. 6 in. 

Port Tai-Oa lies to the westward of JAnna Maria bay. At the 
entrance of the bay, the west side of which is formed by^lofty and perpen- 
dicular rocks, there is 20 fathoms water over a fine bottom of sand and 
clay. On the eastern side of the entrance [is a rocky bay with a heavy 
surf, exposed to the westward.! 

After passing the western point of this rocky bay, a fine basin opens out, 
running in a north-easteriy direction about half a [mile [deep and 2 cables 
wide ; at the bottom is a sandy beach, behind which is a green fiat. This 
basin is so completely landlocked that ' the most violent storm would 
have scarcely any effect on the water, and a ship in need of repairs could 
not wish a finer harbour for such a purpose, the depth also is exceedingly 
convenient. 

Bananas, cocoanuts, and bread fruit are abundant, but animal provisions 
are scarce. 

Coast. — ^The western or leeward coast of Nukuhiva is called the 
Henua Ataha, or desert land, and instead of being steep and abrupt, slopes 
gradually, up to the mountains. The natives come here to fish, but there 
is no harbour. 

It will be prudent to avoid this coast in a sailing ship, on account of the 
calms, which extend for 2 or 3 miles off shore, caused by the high lands. 

The east coast of the island runs northward from cape Martin to Adam 
and Eve point, a distance of 9 miles, and for one third of the distance is 
almost perpendicular cliff. 

Adam and Eve point or Atupa-atua is the north-east point of the island ; 
on the extremity and at two thirds of its height are two singular rocks, 
which seen in some positions, look like grotesque statues of a man and 
woman, hence the name. By the English and Americans they are called 
Jack and Jane. 

The currents run very rapidly round this point. 



* Paris Notice Hjdrographxqne, No. 80 of 18S2. 
t See plan oa Admiralty chart, No. 1,640. 



108 MARQUESAS ISLANDS. [chap, iv 

The north coast runs gener&lly east and west for 13 miles, and is 
indented bv several bays, some of which are deep, but in the season of the 
N.E, winds, which veer to the northward, there is a heavy sea in them. 

Hfttl^V6ft| A narrow indentation only fit for boats, runs in first to the 
westward of Adam nnd £ve point. Off the west entrance point is Motii-iti, 
a pointed rock, which also maii^s the entrance to Anaho, the next bay. 

AllfthO b&y ibrms a good anchorage, and is perhaps the best harbour 
in the Marquesas islands^ being the <Hily one where vessels do not generally 
roll. The bay is about 1| miles in a north and south direction, and the 
iH^ttom on the west j^iile is olxstnictod by a coral reef which dries in patches 
at low water,* 

With wiiKk from S.E. to E.N.E. the sea is perfectly calm, but when 
froiu N«fi« the surf is ^metimes felt a little. In 1880 the French gunboat 
CkitifjfifHr scMTcely felt anything at the anchorage when the wind was 
blowing frwih from the N.p]. outside. 

Sailing vessels have no diillculty in entering the bay, and in moderate 
wt>ather it is just as easy to get out. The water is nowhere very deep, and 
tu cases of necessity vcHsels can anchor anywhere. Formerly this bay was 
much used by whalern. 

The head of tho bay is very close to that of Aa-tua-tua on the east coast, 
being only iio|)arated by a narrow isthmus. 

AnollOrftge. — The best anchorage for sailing vessels is on tho 
eastern side of the bay opposite the Blow Hole in 15 fathoms. Steamers 
prefer anchoring near the western anchor marked on the chart on account 
of being nearer the landing place. They should avoid going deeper in to 
the westward, and should keep the entrance gf the bay well open. 

Lftnding can be effected without difficulty on the beach by passing 
through an opening in the reef opposite some huts on the shore, as the 
water is always smooth there. 

Caution, — Sailing vessels in leaving the bay should study the current, 
which sets rather strongly to the westward. In sailing from the eastern 
anchorage they may find a difficulty in weathering Mesange point, notwith- 
standing the E.S.E. squalls coming over the isthmus from Aa-tua-tua."f 

AtiheU bay. — 'fhe eastern extremity of this bay, which is tho 
third from Adam and Eve point, is about 5 miles from that cape, and may 
be recognised by a bluff of brown rocks, over which towers a peak 980 feet 
high. The east point is 246 feet high, and vessels can go close alongside 
as there is 16 fathoms at the foot. The west side of the bay is terminated 
by a comparatively low point. 



* See plan on Admiralty chart, No. 1640; 

t Paris Notice Hydrographique, No. 30 of 1S82. 



CHAP. IV.] ANAHO BAY. — ^ATIHEU BAY. — HAKAEHAU BAY. 109 

Coming from the northward or westward the residence of the Roman 
Catholic missionary will be seen at the entrance of Atibea bay, a white 
house somewhat elevated above tlie sea. 

To find a convenient anchorage vessels should proceed about a mile into 
the bay, which is nearly 1^ miles deep from the east point, up to which 
there is no bottom at 27 fathoms. In many places opposite the points 
which project from the eastern side the bottom is rocky for some distance 
from the shore. 

Anchorage.— The best anchorage is opposite a small bight situated 
in the S.E. part of the bay in 12 fathoms, sand, with the following bear- 
ings : — West point of the bay, N. 50° W. ; mission house, N. 5° W. ; east 
point of entrance. North. 

Violent squalls from S.E. sometimes occur which blow down the steep 
mountains in the inner part of the bay. During the season of the N.E. 
winds the sea is sometimes very heavy and nearly always rough. At any 
time it is difficult to beat out on account of the variableness of the squalls. 

Landing on (he beach in the N.E. season is difficult, if not im- 
possible ; but with proper precautions may generally be effected on the 
rocks in the S.E. part of the bay opposite the anchorage.* 

Haume bay is a slight indentation of the coast just west of Atiheu, 
and is not inhabited. 

Hakapa bay is an almost semi-circular indentation about 7^ miles 
westward of Adam and Eve point, and exposed to all winds from E.N.E. to 
N.W., without anchorage, and no landing on account of the large boulders 
on the beach. The corresponding valley is densely wooded, and the native 
huts may be seen among the trees half way up the hill at the foot of very 
steep mountains.* 

Hapapani and Vaekao bays. — To the westward of Hakapa is 
a bight in which are two very small bays, Hapapani lying N.W. and S.E., 
and Vaekao N.N.E. and S.S.W. Several vessels have anchored in the 
former during the S.E. winds. 

Hakaeh.au bay. — From Vaekao, the coast instead of being a con- 
tinuation of abrupt cliffs, descends in gentle slopes towards the sea, the 
beginning of the desert land. Westward of the second point from Vaekao 
is Hakaehau bay, inhabited by the tribe of Pua. It is difficult to distin- 
guish, but the eastern part of the highest mountain in the island bearing 
S.E. leads to the entrance. 

The eastern point of the bay is a promontory of black rocks, which 
sailing vessels should pnss close to in coming to an anchor. 

♦ Paris Notice Hydrographique, No. 30 of 1882. 



110 MARQUESAS ISLANDS. [chap. iy. 

Hakaehau is a small basin about 4 cables deep and less than 2| cables 
wide, lying in a N.W. and S.E. direction and well sheltered from the 
ordinary winds. While the French war vessel Chasseur was in this 
anchorage there was a good breeze blowing from E.N.E. and a heavy sea 
outside, but quite cdm in the bay. The only winds to be feared are those 
from N.W. 

In the middle of the bay is 8^ fathoms, gray sand, the depth gradually 
increasing to seaward. One mile northward of the east point are 22 to 26 
fathoms, gray sand ; so that in fine, calm weather sailing vessels can kedge 
out and make sail. The land breezes from E.S.E to S.E. are generally 
felt in the morning. 

Formerly a good many whalers visited Hakaehau, but most of them 
anchored at the entrance of the bay.* 

MotU-hi is a small bay about one mile to the westward of Hakaehau, 
but does not afford anchorage. 

HEROEST ROCK or MOTU-ITI is a volcanic rock 
elevated 130 feet above the sea, situated 24 miles W. by N. of the N.W. 
point of Nukuhiva. To the eastward are two other white islets entirely 
devoid of vegetation, and much lower than Hergest rock. 

There is an abundance of fish lound them, and large flocks of gulls, 
which have left a considerable deposit of guano, but of bad quality. 

Tj AW SON bane. — ^Mr. Lawson, master and owner of the trading 
sloop Peep-o^-dayy reported that on May 2nd, 1863, he passed over a bank 
of considerable extent on which he hove to and obtained soundings of 
8 10, and 12 fathoms ; also caught several large fish of the rock-cod 
species. On first seeing the bottom, Hergest rocks bore E. by N. about 
10 or 12 miles. 

In 1870 an American whaler crossed the bank, and a report to that 
effect appeared in a Sandwich island newspaper. 

In March 1871, Captain Turner, in the schooner Nautilus, passed over 
this bank, obtaining soundings of 4 to 10 fathoms, Hergest rocks bearing 
E.N.E. 7 or 8 miles.t 

CLARE BANE was first reported in lat. 8^ 18' S., long. 139^ 52' W. 
The French war vessel Venus sounded near this position, and failed to 
obtain bottom at 176 fathoms. This bank, however, has been clearly seen 
by several ships, and Captain Turner of the whaler Spartan crossed the 
bank in 1855, obtaining 8^ fathoms least depth of water, though shoaler 
patches were apparently seen from aloft. 



* Paris Notice Hydrographique, No. 30 of 1882. 

Commander K. H. A. Mainwi^ng, H.M.S. Cameiean, 1873. 



CHAP. IV.] HEBGEST BOCKS. — ^EIAO OB MASSE ISLAND. Ill 

In 1869 Captain Turner, of the schooner Nautilus, reports having found 
himself suddenly in shoal water. He sailed over the bank from north to 
south, piloting the vessel from the masthead in the deep channel for 2 or 3 
miles ; the least water obtained was 6 fathoms, but shoaler patches were 
seen near the ship. He places the shoal in lat. 8° 8' S., long. 139° 53' W. 

In 1875, the French war vessel Vlnfernet searched over this latter 
position without success, no bottom being obtained at 164 fathoms. 

The position of Clark bank is therefore marked "doubtful" on the 
.Admiralty chart. 

EIAO or MASSE ISLAND is 6 miles in length in a N.E. and 
S.W. direction, and attains a height of 2,000 feet. The south shores are 
rocky, without any covea or landing places, the surface, though green, 
produces no trees, but a few shrubs and bushes are thinly scattered over 
the face of the rocks. The north-west side has a more favourable aspect, 
and although the shores are rocky, a number of trees are produced both 
on the sides of the hills and in the valleys. This side possesses some coves 
where there is landing, particularly in one near the middle ; this from the 
appearance of the northern side is named Battery cove. A little to the 
northward of this cove is a bay called Cocoanut bay, which was examined 
by Lieutenant Hergest, and good anchorage with regular soundings from 
5 to 18 fathoms found, the bottom a fine clear sand. 

An excellent stream of fresh water discharges into the bay, near a 
grove of cocoanut trees. The landing was but indifferent on account of 
the surf ; but water is easily obtained. 

In the two valleys above alluded to the vegetation seemed more rich and 
active than in any other parts of the island. Besides these, between the 
peaks several plateaux covered with pine trees and verdure were seen. 
The island is not inhabited. 

HATUTU or CHANAL ISLAND is about 4 miles in 
length and one mile broad and attains a height of 1,380 feet. At the 
north point there is a large high islet a short distance from the shore. 

In the channel separating Hatutu from Eiao, a breaker is reported to 
exist. 

These two islands afford an abundance of fish and sea fowl, and are 
occasionally resorted to by the natives of Nukuhiva and Ua-pu islands. 

CORAL ISLANDS.— Situated 9 miles E. by N. ^ N. from the 
east end of Hatutu are two coral islands, on a shoal on which the sea 
breaks heavily. Soundings from 12 to 20 fathoms were obtained in the 
vicinity, and there are vague reports from whalers of other shoals in the 
neighbourhood. 



112 8CATTBRBD ISLANDS. Icoaf. iv. 

SOATTERBD ISLANDS NORTH-WEST OF THE MAEQTJESAS." 
FLINT ISLAND.in lat. ll^ae' S.,loDg.i5l°48'W. is 13 feet 
high, cuvereit whb brushwood and trees, and visible from the masthead 
from a distance of 16 milea. The island is about 2J miles long from 
N.N.W. to S.S.E., half a mile broad in the widest part, and fringed 
hy a steep coral reef which dries at low water, and extends s-ia- 
ward half a cnbte ; off the north end of the iaUnd the reef extends seawai'd 
nearly half a milo, and off the south end E.S.E. a quarter of a. mile. In 
the interior of the island are two lagooos having brackish water.f 

The European ssttlement is situated near the landing-place on the west 
side of the island. A mooring buoy is placed in 95 fathoms water off the 
landing-place ; the anchor is secured bj a chtun to an inner buoy situated 
close to the short, and the inner buoy is secured by chains to the shore. 
Vessels are recommended during easterly winds to make fast a liawser also 
to the inner buoy .J 

Guano has been shippe<l at the island. 

In Octobor ISSO (he island was uninhabited, and the buoys were gonc.§ 
Tlu^iv is litlie or no rise uid fell of tide. 

VOSTOK ISLAND (Ehj&A), about 86 miles N.N.W. i W. of 
Flinl island, in lat. 10" 6' S., long. 152° 23' W., is somewhat triangular in 
slm|H> and about a third of a mile in diameter. This low sandy island is 
thickly woo<led, about 80 feet in height to the tops of (he trees, sur- 
rounded with heavy breakers, and visible from the masthead from a 
distance of about l.l niiles.^ 

Landing may be effected on the western side, through a boat passage in 
" >pposite the place marked settlement on the chart. In 18S4 it 
iabited.|| 

)LINE ISLAND, lying about 123 miles E. byN. of 
land, consists of a number of small islands, standing on a coral 
3 chain of islands thus formed is about 7 miles long in a N.N.E, 
T. direction, IJ miles broad, :^om 15 to 20 feet high, and may 
rom the masthead from a distance of about 14 miles. The 
reef fringes the shore, and on the outer edge the sea breaks with 
lie violence. There is a passage through or over this reef near 
-west point, which is deep enough to permit ships bonis to 
to the lagoon at high water.} 

Imiraltj charts.— Pacific 0:can, General Ho. 268S. Pacific Ocean, S.E., 
Sa. Pacific Ocetm, N.E., Bfaeet, No. 78S. 
Anualen der Hf drogmpbie, Heft 1 of 1ST8. 
Imiralt]' sheet of pinni, No. 978. 

k book, NaTigating Lieutenant W. Tamer, H.M.S. Pelican, ISGO. 
F. P. Donghtj, H.M.S. Conglonce, 188*. 



CHAP. IV.] FLINT. — ^VOSTOK. — CAROLINE . 113 

This island was visited in May 1883, by the U.S.S. Hartford, for the 
purpose of observing the total eclipse of the sun. The transit pier which 
was used on the occasion is situated near the northern point of South 
island, and is crowned with a marble slab bearing the following inscrip- 
tion :— « tJ.S. Solar Eclipse Party, May 6th, 1883." The position of the 
pier is in lat. 10° 0' 1" S., long. 150° 14' 30" W. 

Directions. — Vessels intending to visit Caroline island should pass 
to the south-westward or lee side of the atoll, and sight the flagstaff stand- 
ing among the trees, near the transit pier. The flagstafip may be easily 
distinguished, and in the daytime an English ensign will probably be 
hoisted as the vessel nears the land. When the flagstaff bears S.E. by E. 
if the vessel stands close to the reef, which is bold, the boat landing may 
be distinguished near the fluke of an anchor, just inside the surf on the 
reef.* 

The passage is formed by an indentation in the reef, about 50 feet 
deep, into which the boat must be pulled on the back of a roller. A sheer 
to port should be given to the boat when within the indentation to avoid 
some projecting coral rocks on the starboard hand, when this is passed a 
landing may be made on the flat coral reef. The reef does not dry at low 
water. 

Inhabitants. — The island was inhabited in 1884 by flve Tahitian 
natives, who were engaged in the planting and care of cocoanut trees. 

Supplies. — Several varieties of birds abound, curlew, plover, &c., and 
a few fowls. Fish are abundant and in great variety. 

^WTater. — The source of fresh water is the rains, which filter through 
the sand and collect on the coral rock. There are two shallow wells on 
the southern island and one on the northern island. 

Climate. — The climate, though warm, is pleasant, and the temperature 
equable. The weather, though mostly fine, is changeable, occasional 
sudden showers occurring, generally at night or early in the morning. 

T^inds. — The prevailing winds in April and May are from the north- 
ward and eastward. 

In 1878 a cyclone passed over the island destroying most of the cocoa- 
nut palms. 

Tides. — ^Eor the outer reef it is high water, full and change, at 4 hours ; 
springs rise 1 ft. 7 in., neaps rise 5 inches. 

Observations show no relation between the tides in the lagoon and those 
outside. The lagoon is open to windward, and the tides are evidently 
much affected by the wind. 



* Caroline island was taken possession of in the name of Her Majesty the Queen, by 
Commander £. Nares, H^.S. Reindeer y on the 9th July 1868. 

u 16615. H 



114 SGArrEKED ISLANDS. [chap.iv. 

PENBHYN ISLAND, situated about 325 miles W. ^ N. of 
Yostok island, consists of numerous low islets, about 50 feet high to the 
tops of the trees, connected by reefs surrounding a lagoon, which is said to 
be deep and to have many coral heads ; the whole island is about 12 
miles long and 7 miles broad. All the islets are covered with cocoa nut 
trees, many however without heads, which would indicate that a cyclone 
has swept over the islands.* 

There is a bank off the N.W. point, extending about 1^ miles to the 
north-westward, with from 7 to 9 fathoms, though shoaler water may 
exist ; anchorage might be obtained on this bank if necessary, but in a very 
exposed position. 

There are three passages into the lagoon, the best of which is on the 
west side, in lat. 9° 0' S., long. 158° 3' 25'' W., near the settlement ; there 
is only 2^ fathoms over the bar, deepening quickly inside; and a depth of 
10 fathoms one cable outside the entrance which increases quickly. 
Another entrance near the N.W. point has 4 fathoms of water, but the 
channel is intricate and in one part excessively narrow. The third 
passage, on the N.E. side, carries a depth of 2^ fathoms and is used by 
small craft trading to the settlement, who leave by the western passage.^ 

A dangerous reef is reported to exist about 4 miles off the east side of the 
island, on which the natives occasionally fish. 

In 1884 there were 3 Europeans settled on the island, and 370 natives, 
who appeared to have come from different islands as their caste of 
features was very varied. They have missionaries among them and profess 
Christianity (protestantism). 

The principal occupation is in collecting the pearl shells. Fish and 
cocoanuts can be obtained in abundance. 

Tides. — It is high water at full and change about 6 hrs. ; rise 1^ feet. 

STARBUCK ISLAND, situated 235 miles N.N.E. of Penrhyn 
island, is 5^ miles long in an east and west direction, and 1^ miles broad. 
The island is very low, for the most part white coral sand, with green 
tangle and ice weed, and a few shrubs in the north-east part, which 
render it visible from the masthead from a distance of about 11 miles.* 

Near the west point of the island is a large pyramid-shaped wooden 
beacon, which is almost the first object seen from seaward. 

Starbuck is surrounded by a reef extending half a mile from the shore, 
except on the east side where it extends further. The north and north- 
west points are the only places where landing can be effected, here there 
are passages through the reef, but landing is difficult aind dangerous at all 
times. 



* See Admiralty sheet of plans, No. 979. 

t Remark book, Lieutenant E. Fleet, H.M.S. Gannet, 1881. 



CHAP. IV.] PENBHYN. — STABBTTCK. — ^MALDEK. 115 

The place hns been visited for guano, then abandoned, but snbseqnentlj 
revisited by the company working Maiden island. 

In 1884, the island was deserted, and houses, pier, and a cargo boat 
looked irrepairable.* 

Near the N.W. point, close to the shore, the depth is 15 fathoms, and 
85 yards further out, the descent is from 15 to 130 fathoms and upwards ; 
anchorage off the south side is wholly impracticable. 

Starbuck island was taken possession of, in the name of Her Majestj 
the Queen, by Commander Swinboume H.M.S. Mutine in December 1866^^ 

The west point is in lat. 5° 37' S., long. 155° 56' W. as determined 
by the officers of the French transport Euryalcy which vessel was lost oa 
the island on the night of March 4th, 1870. 

Curreilt. — On the occasion of the loss of the Euryale^ the current was^ 
found to have set 50 miles, W. by N. ^ N., in 24 hours. 

MALDEN ISLAND, (English), lying about 106 miles N.N.E. of 
Starbuck island, is a low coral island about 5 miles long and 4 broad, and 
in no place more than 30 feet above the level of the sea ; a few shrubs and 
marine plants grow on the island, which render it visible from the mast* 
head from a distance of about 15 miles, but no fresh water is to be found ; 
repeated attempts having been made to obtain it by sinking wells. There 
is a condensing machine for distilling water at the settlement. Thei'e are 
several salt lagoons (one of large size), the waters of which ebb and flow 
with the ocean tide. Indications of former inhabitants exist.f 

The island is steep-to, with but an indifferent anchorage on the lee or 
western side ; but is worked for the guano by a Melbourne company, who 
have a boat pier run out under sheers, from which the cargo boats are 
loaded. 

Several sets of moorings are laid down off the western side of the island* 
the buoys of which are about a cable apart north and south ; but so close ta 
the shore as to render the utmost caution necessary when approaching under 
sail, especially as the current generally runs strong to the southward. It 
is advisable to keep some after sail set aback when at the moorings, to 
prevent tailing on the reef should the wind fall light, or else to drop a 
small stem anchor in about 60 fathoms. 

A small ledge extends a short distance from the shore just to the south- 
ward of the pier, on which a vessel struck on casting from the buoy, and 
became a wreck. Care is therefore necessary in giving this ledge a ^nde 
berth as the current sets right across it.^ 



• Captain F. P. Doughty, H.M.S. Constance, 1884. 
t See Admiralty sheet of plans. No. 979. 
I Remark book. Lieutenant Ernest Fleet, H.M.S. Ckmnet, 1881. 

II 2 



116 SCATTERED ISLANDS. [chap. nr. 

Landing is effected at the loading pier or on the beach when the surf 
permits. There is a five-mile tramway which brings the guano in from 
distant parts dead to windward ; the trucks are pushed up by hand in the 
morning and sail back as thej are loaded. Houses^ stores, carpenters and 
blacksmiths' shops, tram-pier, boats, &c, are in good order. 

In 1884 there were 8 Europeans and 160 native labourers on the island 
working the guano.* 

The flagstaff on the west side of the island is in lat. 4° 3' S., long. 
155° 1' W. 

Current. — A strong westerly current must be taken into consideration, 
when navigating in the vicinity. Lieutenant Chauviniere considers that 
the approach to Maiden and Starbuck islands, especially from the eastward, 
must be made with great caution, owing to much of the shore being awash 
and to the prolongation of the reefs in that direction. The currents also 
run very strongly between Maiden and Starbuck, running to the westward 
32 miles in 24 hours ; and in the vicinity of the latter island has been 
estimated to run 43, 51, and even 56 miles W.S.W. in 24 hours. 

JAB.VIS ISLAND, about 365 mUes N.W. by W. 4 W. of Maiden 
island, is a small coral island, triangular in shape. If miles east and west, 
and a mile north and south, exhibiting the appearance of a white sandy 
beach, 10 or 12 feet above the sea, without trees or shiiibs, except one 
young cocoa-nut tree, and but a few patches of grass. The island has been 
occupied by the Phoenix Guano Company, who placed men on it for the 
purpose of working the guano. 

During the day, the houses will be first observed on neai'ing the island ; 
but at night time the white sandy beach is the most conspicuous. 

The island may be seen from the masthead from a distance of about 
14 miles. ^ 

In 1880 there were five houses on the island in charge of a Tahitian, 
and the American flag hoisted, as Captain E. O. Avery had taken possession 
of Jarvis island in February 1880, and placed it under the protection of 
the Grovernraent of the United States.f However in 1881, on the occasion 
of the visit of H.M.S. Gannet, the Red ensign was observed to be flying. J 

In 1884, when H.M.S. Constance visited the island, it was deserted, and 
from an old almanac that was found it appeared to have l)een abandoned in 
October 1882.* 

A shoal bank extends for about a mile from the north-east side of the 
island, on which the least water obtained was 5 fathoms.* 



♦ Captain F. P. Doughty, H.M.S. Constance, 1884. 

t Remark book, Commander F. R. Dicken, H.M.S. Pelican, 1880. 

X Remark book, Lieutenant Ernest Fleet, H.M.S. Gannet, 1881. 



CHAP. IV.] JARVIS ISLANJD. — CHRISTMAS ISLAND. 11? 

Captain Wilkes of the U.S. exploring expedition places the island in 
lat. 0° 22^' S., long. 159° 54' W. 

CHRISTMAS ISLAND, about 200 miles KE. ^ N. of Jarvis 
island, is one of the largest of the coral islands, being nearly 30 miles 
long in an east and west direction; the highest part does not exceed 
3 or 4 feet, and is not visible for more than 5 or 6 miles from a vessel's 
deck, the haze of the breakers being often seen before the land, this, 
together with the strong currents which set west and north-west, particu- 
larly during the full and change of the moon, render the east side of 
the island extremely dangerous, and many wrecks have occurred upon it.* 

The bight on the east side is very dangerous. A vessel getting into it 
at night will have great difficulty in getting out after discovering the 
breakers. 

On the west side of the island is a rather deep indentation, with a sandy 
island lying in the centre, forming two narrow and shallow channels into 
the lagoon ; small vessels may enter, but the sea breaking over the low 
belt of coral makes the anchorage inconvenient. 

There is fair anchorage off the sandy island (Cook island) in from 10 to 
15 fathoms, about a mile distant, and the water is generally smooth. The 
tides set strongly in and out of the lagoon, but are not much felt at the 
outer anchorage.f 

'l^The best anchorage is stated to be in 10 or 15 fathoms water, sandy 
bottom, midway between Cook island and the north-west point of 
Christmas island, and just off a reef, over which the surf breaks constantly. 
This anchorage is smooth when the trades are blowing, but if the wind is 
to the southward of south-east, or to the northward of north-east, there 
will be a heavy swell setting round the points. 

The winds are generally from the eastward, with an occasional squall 
from the northward or southward ; rain squalls during the night are fre- 
quently experienced near the time of full moon. 

Fish are plentiful, of excellent quality, and easily caught by heaving a 
line a few feet from the beach at high water. A few turtle have been 
seen, and they may be plentiful in the season. Sharks are numerous and 
give much trouble to the shell divers. 

An inferior quality of fresh water has been found by digging, which 
answers for cooking purposes, and would sustain life for a short time. 
The wood of the bushes growing on the island is extremely soft and 
spongy, and of little value ; the cocoa-nut trees of which Cook, Scott, and 
others speak, have nearly all disappeared, there being but eight standing 



♦ See Admiralty sheet of plans, No. 979. 

t Commander J. S. Skerret, U.S.S. Portsmouth, 1874. 



118 SCATTERED ISLANDS. [chai-.iv. 

on the island in 1881 ; wrecked parties have cut many of them down, the 
remainder being destroyed by the wind. 

In 1880 a notice was found in the house on Bridges point that the 
island had been leased from the British government by Houlder Bros. & Co. 
of London.* 

In 1884, the island was owned by Messrs. Henderson and MacFarlane> 
of Auckland, who had placed one European and 6 native 4abonrers on the 
island for the purpose of collecting the black-edged pearl shell, and planting 
large quantities of cocoa-nuts.f 

The observation spot on the north end of Cook island is in lat. 1° 57' 17" N., 
long. 157° 27' 45" W. 

It is high water at full and change at 4h. 23 m. Springs rise 3 feet 2 ins. 

FANNING ISLAND, about 145 miles N.W. ^ W. of Christmas 
Island, is a low lagoon coral island, thickly covered with cocoa nut trees, 
which render it visible from a vessels deck at the distance of about 

15 miles4 

The island is not above 2 or 3 feet high in any part except on the 
northern and eastern sides, where a narrow ridge of coral plates have been 
thrown up by the sea to the height of 10 feet, forming a kind of break- 
water. On the weather side, the island is steep to at a distance of 100 
yards outside this breakwater, but to the north-westward and westward 
a bank of coral extends off from one half to three-quarters of a mile ; on 
tlie west side whalers anchor in from 10 to 20 fathoms half a mile oft 
shore. The greatest length of the island, which is in a north-west and 
south-east direction, is 9^ miles, and 4 miles wide. 

The width of the belt of coral enclosing the lagoon is about half a mile ; 
there arc several gaps in the trees, which appear from seaward like 
entrances into the lagoon, but are not so, the only entrance being on the 
south-west side. 

The entrance into the lagoon is scarcely a cable in width with a depth 
of 4 fathoms. 

Vessels should not enter without a pilot, who will come off from the 
settlement on the east side of the entrance, where there is a flag-staff flying 
the English flag, which is in lat. 3° 51' 25" N., long. 159° 22' 0" W. This 
is not a safe place for sailing vessels to enter, unless fore and aft rigged 
schooners, which may work in with a knowledge of the tides. A steam 



* Remark book, Commaader F. R. Dicken, H.M.S. Peiican, 1880. 
't Captain F. P. Doughty, H.M.S. Constance, 1884. 
} The description of Fanning, island is derived from the remarks of Captain G. H. 
Bichards, H.M Saryeying ship Hecate, 1863. See Admiralty sheet of plans^ No. 2867. 



CHAP. IV.] FANNING ISLAND. 119 

vessel of 16 to 18 feet draught may enter safely with the beginniDg or end of 
the ebby but she cannot go bejond 2 or 3 cables within the entrance and 
must moor opposite the houses, in 4 fathoms, in the strength of the tide. 
Tlie best time for leaving the anchorage is at the b^inning or end of 
flood tide. 

The lagoon within the entrance is choked with coral bars and patches, 
which are considered to be growing up, there are some deep places how- 
ever, and vessels of 12 feet draught maj cross the first bar and anchor out 
of the tide ; small vessels may lie alongside the eastern shore out of the tide. 

In May 1863 H.M.S. Hecate remained eight days moored off the settle- 
ment with 40 fathoms on each anchor, and found the tides to run at the 
rate of 5 knots at springs, the flood stronger than the ebb. It is not a 
comfortable anchorage, though if properly moored, not unsafe ; there is not 
suflicient room for two large vessels.* 

In 1881 there was a small settlement lately abandoned, 6 cables south of 
the N.W. point, consisting of a few houses and huts and a long substantial 
iron pier. There is a small quantity of guano, but only of fair quality. 

In 1884, the island was owned by Messrs. Greig and Bicknel, of Hono- 
lulu, who had placed 4 Europeans and 21 native labourers on the island for 
the purpose of working the guano, which was being shipped at Whaler 
anchorage.! 

Directions for entering lagoon.— Steer for flagstafl* point on 

an E.N.E. bearing, until nearly abreast of the ledge of rocks running to 
the southward from the north point of entrance, when steer so as to pass 
from 50 to 80 yards distant from the flagstaff point, and moor off the settle- 
ment with open hawse to the 8.S.E. 

During ebb tide there is a strong line of ripples near the centre of the 
deep water channel, which to a stranger might appear to mark the shoal spit 
on the north side of the entrance ; but a bearing of the flagstaff* is the best 
guide, going either in or out.^ 

Winds and weather. — The N.E. and S.E. trades appear here to 
merge into an easterly wind, which blows during the greater part of the 
year, perhaps the S.E. trade is dominant ; there is rarely a calm. During 
January, February, and March uncertain weather prevails, and sometimes 
strong northerly winds, with much rain, also north-westerly gales, when 
the anchorage would be unsafe for a large vessel. 

"Water may be procured by digging wells, in which the fresh water 
rises and falls with the tide ; these wells should not be more than 4 feet 
deep or the water will be brackish.* 



* Captain G. H. Richards, H.M.S. Hecate, 1863. 

t Captain F. P. Doughty, H.M.S. Constance, 1884. 

{ Remark book, Lieutenant E. Fleet, H.M.S. Gunnel, 1881. 



120 SCATTERED ISLANDS. [chap.iv. 

TidOS. — ^It is high water at full and change at 6h., the greatest rise 
and fall is 2 ft. 6 in. The tides are 6 hourly and regular, and run as much 
as 5 knots at springs. 

WASHINGTON ISLAND, Ijing 66 miles N.W. by W. of 
Fanning island, was discovered by Captain Fanning in 1798. It is 
3^ miles in length east and west, by l^ miles wide, the height above the 
sea about 10 feet, and entirely covered with cocoanut and other trees, 
exhibiting a most luxuriant growth, which render it visible from the mast- 
head from a distance of about 14 miles. 

The fringing reef extends half a mile off the eastern point, and off the 
west point the water appeared much discoloured, but the sea was only 
seen to break close to the island.* 

In approaching this island, every opportunity should be taken of verify- 
ing the position of the ship, as being near the southern edge of the 
counter equatorial current the currents vary both in direction and 
strength. 

There is good anchorage off the settlement at the western end of the 
island, but landing is dangerous and sometimes impracticable on account of 
the heavy surf. 

In 1884, the island was owned by Messrs. Greig and Bicknel, of Hono- 
lulu, and one European and 30 native labourers have been left by them to 
cultivate cocoa-nuts and cure copra.f 

The observation spot, near the village, is in lat. 4° 41' 10" N., 
long. 160° 19' W. 

PALMYRA ISLAND, which was discovered by Captain Sawle 
of the American ship Palmyra in 1802, was surveyed by Commander 
J. S. Skerret, commanding the U.S.S. Portsmouth^ in 1874, and consists 
of many small islets occupying a space of 5 miles east and west and 
one mile north and south, situated about 126 miles N.W. by W. \ W. of 
Washington island. The several islets, which enclose three distinct 
lagoons, are low, the most elevated being only 6 feet above the level of 
the sea, and covered with cocoanut trees. From a distance the islets 
appear as a group surrounding a single lagoon. The position of the obser- 
vation spot, near the south-western islet, is in lat. 5° 49' 4'' N., long. 
162° 11' 30" W.J 

Breakers extend a mile from the north-east and south-east islets ; and 
on the north side of the group the sea sometimes breaks in 5 fathoms. 
On the eastern side the current combined with fresh easterly winds 

'*' See Admiralty sheet of plans, No. 2867. 

t Captain F. P. Doughty, H.M.S. Constance, 1884. 

X See Admiralty sheet of plans, No. 979. 



CH4P.1V.] WASHINGTON. — ^PALMTBA. — KINGMAN BEEF. 121 

creates an over&ll, but there is no known danger outside the breakers on 
the eastern side. 

AnCllOragO. — it is dangerous to approach Palmyra island from the 
northward or westward ; the safest approach is from the southward. A 
vessel may stand safely in by keeping Strawn island, on which the huts 
are erected, bearing N.E. by N., and run in until Bird island (the south- 
eastern island) bears E. by N., when she may anchor in 7 fathoms. The 
water shoals rapidly from 30 fathoms. 

Tides.— It is high water, ftiU and change, at 5h. 23m. ; springs rise 
2 feet. 

'Weath.Or. — Mr. Strawn, a resident, stated that during the ^ye months 
he had been on the island the rain was almost constant, four days of dry 
weather being the longest interval on any one occasion. There is no 
evidence that the island is visited by storms, but strong squalls sometimes 
blow from the east and south-east. 

Supplies. — ^A few people are living on Strawn island (north-west end 
of the group), engaged in making copra. Fish are abundant and in great 
variety ; turtle scarce ; curlew, snipe, and plover were found. On one of 
the eastern islets there is a small pool that generally contains rain-water. 

KINGMAN REEF,— In June 1874 the British steam-ship Tartar 
struck on a coral reef which is considered to be identical with Kingmau 
reef situated in latitude 6° 24' N., longitude 162° 22' W. The shoal, none 
of which showed above water, appeared to be of considerable extent aud 
in the shape of a horseshoe. The vessel was found to be in a lagoon 
enclosed by a network of coral reefs. 

In this locality reefs have been 'frequently reported, varying but little 
in position in latitude but considerably in longitude, and it is probable 
that different positions have been given to the same reef, and that the 
error has been caused by incorrect reckoning and strong currents. Until 
this locality has been more thoroiighly examined, gi'eat precaution should 
be taken in its naxigation. 

Kingman reef is situated in the belt traversed by the equatorial counter 
current setting to the eastward, which current in this part attains a 
strength of 30 to 42 miles a day.* 

CALDEW BEEF is reported to be in lat. 6° 24' N., long. 
161® 44' W., its existence however is doubtful and may be identical with 
the foregoing. 

MARIA SHOAL was reported by Captain Crane of the schooner 
Maria in 1862, the position given being lat. 5° 58' N., long. 16i'' 0' W. 



♦ See Wind and current charts for the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, published 
by the Admiralty, 1872. 



122 SCATTERED ISLANDS. [okap.iv. 

The schooner ran over a reef of rocks, with about 4 fathoms water, and 
discoloured water in the vicinity. 

In 1874, Captain Skerrett, U.S.N. reported having searched the position 
assigned to this shoal without seeing any signs of shoal water. - 

Captain Cobb of the P.M.S.S. City of New York and Captain Dearborn 
of the P.M.S.S. City of Sydney^ who have passed the vicinity of this 
reported shoal, both doubt its existence.'* 

Captain Chevalier of the steam-ship Zelandia, 1878, reported having on 
two occasions passed over the above position, without seeing any indication 
of shoal water, the position therefore must be considered doubtful. 

DIANA SHOAL was discovered by a schooner of that name in 
1852, during her passage from Honolulu to Fanning island. The position 
given is lat. 8*^ 40' N., long. 157'' 20' W. In 1863 H.M.S. Hecate 
searched unsuccessfully for Diana shoal in the above position, but Captain 
Richards was informed afterwards at Fanning island,»by an English trader, 
that it is well known, and that the shoal is of considerable extent. Its 
existence must therefore be considered as possible, though it has never been 
again reported, and its position is very doubtful. 

* United States. Notice to Mariners, No. 175 of 1884.' 



123 



CHAPTER V. 



Yabiation in 1885. 
Sandwich blands - - r(yto9°15'£. 

Midway island - - l(f 15' E. 



HAWAII OB SANDWICH ISLANDS.— ISLANDS, ROCKS, AND 

SHOALS. 

Position. — Discovebt. — Eabthquakes. — ^Natives. — Supplies. — ^Wind. 

CuBBENTs. — Tides, Ac. 

The Sandwich islands, lying between the parallels of 18^ 5Q^ and 
22° 15' N. and the meridians of 154"* 40^ and 160° W W., stretching in a 
W.N.W. and E.S.E. direction for about 340 miles, consist of eight prin- 
cipal islands and four small rocky islets ; the entire group having an area 
of about 6,000 square miles. 

These islands were first made generally known to Europeans by the 
third voyage of Cook in 1778, but it appears probable that they were 
previously known to the Spaniards, as in some charts, taken by Anson 
from a Manilla galleon, there is a group of islands called Los Magos, 
placed between lat. 18° and 2^ N. and long. 135° and 139° W., the 
different members of which are named La Mesa, La Desgraciada, Los 
Monges, &c. 

The Spanish word Mesa, signifying table, probably refers to the island 
of Hawaii, the summits of which, unlike those of most volcanic islands, 
are flat ; also the position as regards latitude would seem to point to the 
conclusion that the group is identical with what is now known as the 
Sandwich islands or Hawaiian archipelago. 

On the 18th January 1778 Captain Cook sighted Kauai island, and on 
the 20th January he anchored in Waimea bay, on the south-west side of 
the island ; he named the group the Sandwich islands in honour of the 
Earl of Sandwich, the first Lord of the Admiralty. 

After visiting the coast of North America, Cook again returned to the 
Sandwich islands, anchoring at Kealakekua bay, on the west side of 
Hawaii, on January 17th, 1779. 

The natives were found to be friendly and hospitable on this occasion, 
and on February 4th Cook took his departure, but during a gale on the 
8th, the Resolution being disabled, the ships returned to Kealakekua bay 
on the 11th. 

On this occasion from some uncertain cause a chief was killed, and 
several petty thefts being resented, a misunderstanding speedily arose, 



124 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [cshap.v. 

which led to a conflict with the natives, in which the distinguished 
navigator was killed on February 14th, 1779. 

The vessels left Kealakekua bay on the 22nd, and an examination was 
made of tlie group, leaving finally on March 15th, 1779. 

The next visitors were Captains Portlock and Dixon in the King George 
and Queen Charlotte ; they anchored in Kealakekua bay on May 26th, 1786, 
and lefl the group in June, and on two subsequent visits at the end of the 
year, and also in 1787, they called at most of the islands, and were well 
received by the natives. 

It appears that La Perouse was at the Sandwich islands at the same time as 
Portlock and Dixon ; he anchored at Maui island and left on June 1st, 1786. 

In 1787 Captain Meares visited the group, remaining a month, and 
reported very favourably on the disposition of the islanders ; and in 1788 
and 1789 Meares and Douglas visited the islands, the latter remaining 
amongst them about four months. 

Between the years 1790 and 1795 Vancouver called in on three occasions; 
in 1793 he introduced cattle and sheep from California, landing them at 
Hawaii ; he also endeavoured to bring to a close the fatal wars then con- 
tinually raging between the natives of Hawaii and those of the other 
islands.' 

In 1794 Kamehameha, the chief of Hawaii, accomplished the subjugation 
of all the other islands, and when he died in 1819 at the age of 66 he was 
king of the whole group. He was succeeded by his son Liho-Liho, during 
whose reio-n the first missionaries arrived in the group, sent by a society 
in the United States. 

In 1824 Liho-Liho, in company with his wife, prime minister, and suite, 
visited England. Unfortunately both he and his wife died in London, 
whereupon the Blonde frigate, under command of Lord Byron, was 
despatched to convey the rest of the party, with the remains of their king 
and queen, back to the Sandwich islands. 

On the death of Liho-Liho (who on succeeding to the sovereignty of the 
islands had taken the title of Kamehameha II.) his brother, then 12 years 
old, was proclaimed king as Kamehameha III., under the regency of his 
mother, on whose death, in 1833, he assumed the entire government of the 
islands, Honolulu, in the island of Oahu, becoming the capital. 

In 1843 the independence of the group as the Hawaiian Kingdom was 
acknowledged by Great Britain, France, and the United States. 

The whole of the islands composing the Hawaiian archipelago are 
volcanic and mainly due to the effects of successive eruptions from craters 
which have been active through long periods of time; whether at any 
period any of these islands could have been classed among the atolls so 
common all over the Pacific is unknown, as they have not been very 
critically examined ; well-defined coral has, however, been found at the 



CHAP, v.] GENEBAL REMARKS.— EABTHQU AXES. — ^WINDS. 125 

height of 500 feet in the island of Molokai, and a bed of coral also exists 
at an elevation of 4,000 feet in Kauai ; coral, interstratified with lava 
beds, is also reported to have been found in some of the other islands. 

THE EARTHQUAEEIS experienced in this group are rarely 
severe or destructive; the heaviest occur in the district south of Mauna Kea 
in Hawaii. The sea wave, however, the usual 'attendant of earthquakes 
originating near the sea coast, is often very destructive, sweeping away 
villages and causing great loss of life and property. Of the extinct craters, 
Punch-bowl hill and Diamond hill in Oahu are well known from being 
situated near Honolulu, the capittd ; but the most remarkable and the 
largest known crater in the world is that of Mauna Hale-a-ka-la, in east 
Maui, 10,030 feet above the sea. The rim is over 12 miles in circum- 
ference and 2 miles wide in its broadest part ; it is destitute of trees to the 
height of 2,000 feet, then a belt of forest to the height of 6,000 feet succeeds, 
from whence to the summit is bare. 

In May 1877, an oceanic wave caused great damage among the islands ; 
it appears to have occun*ed simultaneously all over the group, namely, at 
about 4.45 a.m. 

The range at Hilo was estimated at 36 feet, and at Kealakekua 30 feet ; 
while at Honolulu it was only 5 feet. 

The loss of life was small, but the damage to property was estimated at 
;^25,000. 

THE NATIVES of these islands are strong, active, and well-made, 
and rather above the average height of Europeans, the complexion of the 
upper classes being comparatively fair ; the men make excellent sailors and 
are largely employed in vessels trading in the Pacific. 

SUFFIiXES, both for exportation and ships' use, may be obtained in 
great variety ; all the usual tropical fruits and vegetables are indigenous, 
whilst a vast number of animals and plants introduced since the days of 
Cook have thriven well and are now abtindant. Cattle and sheep are 
plentiful in all the large islands, and poultry may be obtained in any 
quantity. Sugar, coffee, rice, tapioca, wheat, maize, beans, peas, yams, 
taro, potatoes, oranges, limes, grapes, pine-apples, pumpkins, bread-fruit, 
plantains, and many other fruits and vegetables, flourish and are in constant 
demand for vessels calling at the various ports. 

Cotton is an article of export, and the silkworm has been introduced, 
with every prospect of success. 

THE CLIMATE is considered healthy to Europeans and on the 
whole favourable to vegetation, whilst the soil, volcanic in its origin, is 
generally fertile. 

WINDS. — ^The N.E. trade wind, generally blowing strong, prevails for 
8 or 9 months in the year, beginning about the early part of March, and 
until May blowing well from the northward. From May to October it is 
more easterly in direction. 



126 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [chap.t. 

The trade causes a very heavy sea in the channels, and during this 
period, for many miles to leeward of the larger islands, frequent calms and 
light baffling winds impede navigation between the various ports. 

During October light trades and calms occur, and sometimes a swell from 
W.S.W., which makes the anchorages on the lee sides of the islands 
disagreeable, though not unsafe. 

During November and December the trade is strong, but irregular, and 
sometimes interrupted by light southerly winds. 

In January and February, when the rainy season commences, strong 
southerly and south-westerly gales, called by the natives Konas, often 
occur, which last from a few hours to two or three days, followed by rain, 
and render all the lee anchorages unsafe. The rainy season usually ends 
in April or May. 

On the west coast of Hawaii land and sea breezes are very regular. 

CURREINTS. — The general direction of the currents in the vicinity 
of the Sandwich islands appears to be to the westward, with a rate of from 
one to 1^ knots an hour; but they are subject to much variation, both in 
force and direction, in different seasons, without appearing to be influenced 
by the winds or to follow any general law. 

PILOTS are always ready at every port to board vessels on the usual 
signal being made. They are frequently retired English and American 
masters, and consequently know how to handle a ship. Most of the ports 
are accessible without their assistance, others are not ; strangers, therefore, 
are recommended to employ them. 



HAWAII, the south-eastern and by far the largest island of the 
group, is of triangular shape ; the west coast runs nearly north and south 
for 100 miles from Upolu point to Ea. Lae, from whence the south-east 
coast trends for 65 miles to cape Kumukahi, and the north-east coast for 80 
miles from cape Kumukahi to Upolu point. 

To one unacquainted with the great height of the mountains of Hawaii, 
this island might appear of comparatively small elevation, for its surface 
rises gradually from the sea, uniform and unbroken ; no abrupt spurs or 
angular peaks are to be seen, and the whole is apparently clothed with a 
luxuriant vegetation. 

On account of the great height of this island, the climate on the weather 
and lee sides is very different ; for the N.E. trade, striking the high land, 
causes abundance of rain to fall on the eastern side, while on the western 
coast rain seldom falls ; hence the rich hues on the eastern slopes of Hawaii, 
covered with verdure and vegetation, contrast strongly with the bare and 
arid look of the coast on the greater part of the western side. 



OHAp.v.] HAWAn. — ^MATJNA LOA. 127 

On account of the numerous eruptions that have taken place on this 
island, and the consequent lava streams that have flowed in all directions 
from the volcanoes^ a great part of the ioterior of the island is a barren 
desert, with but few inhabitants, and many of the once beautiful valleys 
have been converted into black-looking, desolate tracks of cinders, mud^ 
and lava. 

Local attraction. — Reports have been • received from Lieutenant 
H. Pearson, H.M.S. Sappho, that in the vicinity of Hawaii the compass 
of that ship was effected when near the island, the needle being apparently 
attracted by the great volcanoes. 

Such an important statement requires to be carefully verified by accurate 
magnetic observations, on shore as well as afloat, so as to determine at 
what distance from the island the attraction may be felt, and also whether 
the amount is appreciable in navigation. 

Maima Eea, 13,805 feet in height, is the highest point of Hawaii^ 
and may be described as a vast mound, surrounded with nine cones, which 
may be considered as craters, long extinct, as no activity has been observed 
for a great number of years. The sides of this mountain are clothed 
with vegetation to within 1,000 feet of the summit ; in the winter months 
frosts prevail, and it is capped with snow. 

Mauna Loa is nearly as high as Mauna Kea, being 13,650 feet in 
height, but of ^ery diflerent formation. Its sunmiit is an active crater, 
which appears as an enormous flattened dome, sloping gradually down on 
.all sides, and presenting a perfectly smooth appearance from seaward. 
All vegetation ceases at about 4,000 feet from the summit, and from thence 
to the edge of the crater extend fields of lava. 

This volcano was ascended and numerous observations made by the 
U.S. Exploring Expedition in 1841. The crater is a very extensire one, 
and is still active : terrible eruptions have taken place at intervals of a 
few years, the latest severe one was in April 1868, when more than one 
hundred people perished, and great destruction was caused, both by the 
streams of lava, the earthquake, and attendant sea wave. 

Eilauea is an immense active volcano 4,400 feet high, lying 1 8 miles 
to the eastward, and on the slope of Mauna Loa. The crater is 3^ miles 
long, 2^ miles wide, and about 700 feet deep. 

Hualalai is another magnificent peak 8,275 feet in height, near the 
west coast of the island. On the summit is a large crater, which has not 
been active for some time ; the last great eruption from it took place about 
the year 1810. 

This mountain rises abruptly on its western side, but viewed from 
seaward it presents a magnificent slope. 

Ka Lae, the south point of the island, in lat. 18^ 54' N., long. 
156^ 42' W., is very low, and rises with a gentle slope to the hills behind. 



128 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [chap. v. 

Eaalualu. — From Ka Lae the coast trends N.N.E. for 6 miles to 
Kaalualuy where there is a small bay and fair anchorage, formed by an old 
lava flow jutting out to the southward ; the lava also runs out some distance 
into the bay, but the shallow water is easily discerned by its light green 
colour. 

Good shelter may be obtained during the prevailing N.E. trade, but with 
southerly winds the anchorage is much exposed. In August 1882 H.M.S. 
Sappho remained at anchor here for 2^ days, in 10 fathoms, bottom white 
sand and lava patches, with the extreme of the point bearing E. by N. 
With 3 shackles of cable, there was plenty of room to swing clear of the 
edge of the lava flow. 

In the N.E. corner of the bay, there is a good pier for landing, but a 
boat has to avoid several very shallow patches of lava on which there is 
always a heavy swell. 

There are only a few huts here, and no supplies of any sort are to be 
obtained. 

Honuapo is a village about 5 miles north of Kaalualu, where there 
is a large sugar mill near the beach, and a wharf. When practicable the 
coasting steamers call here, but the landing is very bad and often im- 
practicable. 

FunalUU is a very exposed roadstead in the Kau district, about 4 
miles north of Honuapo. There are two buoys moored in 13 and 17 
fathoms which the small coasting steamers make use of, and N.E. of them 
anchor ago may be obtained in 15 fathoms, but it is not recommended 
unloHH tlio weather be very fine. 

Two small lighthouses are placed in line with the buoys, and to the 
southward of them is a wharf, slightly protected by a projecting point of 
rtHjk. 

There is a large village inland, about 6 miles N.W. of Punaluu. 

Coast. — ^From Punaluu the coast trends N.E. by E. for 49 miles to 
cape Kumukahi, the east point of the island, and in all this distance there 
are no bays or good anchorages, as it is exposed to the vrind and swell. 

Vessels beating up to windward against the trade wind, along this coast, 
are advised to keep close inshore, not going farther off than 20 to 25 miles, 
thereby avoiding a great deal of the current, which runs at times as much 
as 1^ knots per hour to the south-westward, outside this distance ; the 
shifts of wind close inshore are generally favourable. Near cape Kumu- 
kahi there is an eddj' current at times, enabling a vessel to round the cape 
with ease. 

Cape Kumukahi is low and rocky, with some tree-covered hillocks a 
short distance to the westward. 



<jHAP.v.] HAAyAII. — ^KAALUALU. — HlliO BAY. 129' 

From cape Kumukahi, the coast trends, with a slight curve to the 
•north-west for 16 miles to Leleiwi poiut. This coast is precipitous, and 
the sea continually beats on it with violence. 

There are several villages near the shore, and the land is well cultivated ; 
sugar-cane, coffee, indigo, and arrowroot growing well. 

Leleiwi point is very low and wooded, with some scattered cocoa-nut 
trees growing on it. 

Keokea point, the eastern extremity of Hilo bay, lies 2J miles W.N.W. 
of Leleiwi point. 

Hilo or Byron bay, on the east side of Hawaii, is the only 
anchorage on this coast. It is about 7^ miles wide between Keokea point 
a.nd Makahanaloa point, and 3 miles deep.* 

This bay is fully exposed to the N.E. trade wind, and would afford no 
anchorage, were it not fov the extensive shoal, called Blonde reef, which 
•extends from the eastern part of the bay for 1^ miles in a W.N.W. direc- 
tion, leaving a channel three quarters of a mile wide between its western 
extreme and the shore. 

A baiTel buoy has been placed near the western extremity of this 
reef, with the following bearings: — Lighthouse N.W. ^ W.; Turret 
rock S. W. by W. | W. This buoy is difficult to distinguish.f 

There are depths of 1^ to 5 fathoms on the Blonde reef, on which the 
:sea breaks heavily, at low water, when much swell is setting in. 

The scene which the island presents as viewed from the auchoj-age in 
Hilo bay is both Jiovel and splendid ; the shores are studded with ex- 
tensive groves of cocoa-nut and bread-fruit trees, interspersed with 
plantations of sugar-cane; through these, numerous streams arc seen 
hurrying to the ocean ; to this succeeds a belt of some miles in width, free 
from woods, but clothed in verdure; beyond is a wider belt of forest^, 
whose trees, as they rise higher and higher from the sea, change their 
•character from the vegetation of the tropics to that of polar regions ; and 
above all tower the snow-capped summits of the mountains. 

From Keokea point the coast trends with a curve, IJ miles W.S.W., 
to Cocoa-nut island, which lies off a point from >^'hich it is separated by a 
narrow channel only a few yards wide. 

The centre of the island is in lat. 19° 43' 51" N., long 155^ 5' L5''' W. 
A ridge of rocks extend N.W. 1^ cables from the island. 

A rock with 7 feet of water over it, and 5 fathoms all round, lies about 
a cable W. by S. ^ S. from the house on Cocoa-nut island. J 



* See plan on sheet No. 1377. 

t Remark book, Navigating Lieutenant T. B. H. MacFarlane, H M.S. Cor.8ta?ice, 
1684. 
X Bemark book, Lieutenant H. Pearson, H.M.S. Sappho, 1SS2. 

n 16615. I 



130 SAKSWICH ISXAKDS. {cmir.v. 

From CoGoa-nat isUnd tbe coast tuma ftharp to the S.S.W, for 4 cables, 
to a creek and village called Whyeatea, where good landing may be 
obtuned in all weathers. The water in this creek is only fit for washing 
pniposes. 

There are two piers to the northward of the entrance of the creek, 
^mgnde the northernmost of which ships drawing 15 feet of water can 
lie with perfect safety, there being a depth of 18 feet alt along the shore 
at low wat«r. 

The shore then turns to the westward, along a sandy beach, for nearly 
a mile, to the bottom of the bay where tbe town of Hilo is situated. 

HiloiB tbe principal town in Hawaii, and is next to Honolnla in 
importance and population. The town may be easily recf^ized &om 
seaward by tbe tall, whito, square towers of the Roman Catholic church, 
and tbe pcnnted white spire of the Protestant chnrch ; there are also 
several other lai^e baildings, both public and private, such as the court* 
house, schools, goyemor'a house, stores, he. 

There are several sugar plantations in the vicinity of Hilo, on which 
the town is mainly dependent for any prosperity ; as, now that the whale 
fishery trade has fallen off, but few whalers v'mt the bay. Besides sugar 
and molasses, Hilo exporle bides, tallow, goat-skins, arrow-root, rice, and a 
small amount .of cofiee. 

Tbe rain-fall here ia very greats and accounts for the luxuriant verdure 
of the district] as much as 150 inches has been known to tail in one 
year. 

Tbe Hawaiian Government steamers communicate with Hilo from Hono- 
lulu once a week, and schooners run constantly between the two porta. 

Supplies of neariy all descriptions can be obtained. Beef 10 cents a lb., 
bread about 9 cents, and vegetables at 6 cents. 

A small pier has been built in fhmt of tbe town, which forms a good 
landing place in fine weather; but with any swell on, the snrf breaks 
some distance ontside it, and then it is better to use tbe Waterfall or 
fVhyeatea creeks. A red light is exhibited from this pier at night. 

he westward of the town is Waterfall creek, the mouth of the 
iver, and about 2 miles from the entrance are tbe Bunbow 
105 feet in height. The point on tbe eastern side of the 
lulled Covoa-nut point. There is a good watering place up this 
li is generally easy of access except when the wind is blowing 
eaward ; on such occasions the surf b high, and the rocky bar 
ace then becomes dangerous for boats to pass. The water is 
d abundant. 

—From Cocoa-nut point tbe coast trends to the northward for 
almost a straight line to M^ahanaloa point. This coast is a 



CHAP, v.] HAWAH. — HILO. — ^ANCHOBAaE. — ^DIBECTIONS. 131 

steep blaff, about 200 feet high^ broken by deep ravines, called ** gulches/' 
in \7hich the villages are situated ; these gulches are from 800 to 1,000 
feet deep, and, apparently, worn by watercourses. There is no landing for 
boats, as all along tlus coast the surf beats on the rocks with great 
violence. 

LIGHT.— At 2 miles, N. by W. { W. of Cocoa-nut point, is the light- 
house, a small white square building, 14 feet high, with a square tower 
above its sea face which looks like a belfry, situated near the edge of the 
xliff; the light exhibited is white^ elevated 136 feet above the sea, and 
visible in dear weather from a distance of 10 miles. 

This light has been reported, not to be depended on.* 

The lighthouse is difficult to distinguish in the daytime, being an in- 
significant building which might easily be mistaken for a small chapel. 

Anchorage. — Hilo bay is a safe anchorage, and, next to Honolulu, 
may be considered the best in the Sandwich islands. In 1841, during the 
three months of December, January, and February, when the ships of the 
U.S. Exploring Expedition were lying in the bay, they did not have a 
gale strong enough to ride to their anchors ; and the residents say that 
the wind never reaches the force of a gale here. 

With a strong trade wind there is a slight sea, unpleasant enough for 
boats, but not sufficient to endanger the safety of a ship. At times, how* 
ever, a considerable swell sets in, which causes a ship to roll disagreeably. 

The northerly wind, which is felt most, seldom blows with any strength. 

A well sheltered anchorage can be picked up anywhere under the lee of 
Blonde reef, in from 5 to 7 fathoms, as the reef affords good protection. A 
vessel drawing 15 feet or less may anchor so as to be quite under the lee 
of Cocoa-nut island and Keokea point. 

Tides.-— It is high water at full and change at Ih. p.m.^ rise of tide 
about 3 feet. 

Directions. — ^In making for the anchorage, as a general rule, it is best 
to close the land a little to the northward of the reef, about east of the 
lighthouse, and then run down along shore rather within a distance of 
half a mile, until Turret rock (7 cables N. by W. f W. of Cocoa-nut pointy 
and 15 feet high) bears west, when course may be altered for the 
anchorage under the lee of the reef. 

The leading mark for clearing the west end of Blonde reef is the huts 
of Funeo village, on the west side of Water&ll creek, in line with the 
eastern side of a remarkable green hill (an extinct volcano) named Halai, 
bearing S.S.W. ^ W. ; this is not a good mark, as the huts are difficult to 
distinguish at times. 



* Staff Commander T. H. Tizard, H.M.S. ChaUenger, 1875- 

I 2 



132 SAITDWICH ISULKDS, [chap.t. 

There is a while pyramid on Hafad, the extinct Tolcano at the back of 
the town, which kept in line with the north tower of the Roman Cathoiic 
chnrch leads over Blonde reef in 3 &thoms. 

On approaching the haj from the eastward, Cocoa-nat cove, abont 
2 cables sonth of the lighthonse, is a good spot to steer for, as it leads 
close to the entrance of the channel. The coxe appears like a dark mark in 
the land, and there is nothing in the vicinity which resembles it. 

On putting to sea, it is advisable to beat well to windward in a north- 
easterly direction after clearing the reef, not attempting to weather 
Makahanaloa point until it can be done with certainty at a distance of 
5 or 6 miles, as the trade wind may fail dose in to the shore, which is 
very steep to, and a heavy swell and current set constantly against the 
precipitous cliffs. 

Tll6 coast north-west of Makahanaloa point is steep and rocky, 
without shelter or anchorage, and innumerable cascades and streams run 
down the mountain sides, over the cliffs, into the sea. Here and there 
are a few small bays, or breaks in the cuffs, where the natives are able to 
land in their canoes on the sandy beached. 

From Makahanaloa point the coast trends W.l^.W. for 33 miles, to a 
small bay about 4 miles wide, under mount Kohala, but it is too much 
exposed to be used as an anchorage. Two miles west of this bay, off the 
western extremity of some black rugged cliffs, arc several rooky i spiels a 
short distance from the shore ; from thence to Upolu point, a distance of 
15 miles, the sea breaks heavily near the coast, and a heavy confused sea 
sets up, which may possibly arise fi'om a sudden decrease in the depth, as^ 
Vancouver obtained soundings of 7 fathoms at 2 miles from the shore. 

Upolu point is the northern extremity of Hawaii ; the land behind is 
an extensive plain, in a good state of cultivation, which rises gradually to 
the foot of the mountains. 

From Upolu point, the coast curves round quickly to the southward, 
and trends for 11 miles S. by E. ^ E. in almost a straight line to Kawaihae 
bay. 

MahukOHa is & small village with anchorage off it, about 6 miles 
-south of Upolu point. The place is becoming of importance through the 
energy of a Mr. Wilder, who has made a most convenient landing-place, 
and constructed a railway, 16 miles in length, to bnng the sugar from the 
Kohala district, round the north end of the island. The cargo boats lay 
alongside the pier and are laden and cleared very quickly by means of a 
steam " crab " which works a truck up and down the incline. 

There is no water in the place. Mr. Wilder went to great expense in 
sinking an artesian well, without result, and in consequence all the fresh 
water has to be brought from Kohala by train. 



CHARY.] HAWAII.— MAHUKONA. — KAWAIHAE BAY. 133 

There are two spar buoys moored in line, W. by S. of the landing-place, 
in 5 and 9 fathoms, to which the small coasting steamers make fast, head 
and stem, whilst loading and unloading. 

Anchorage may be obtained in 10 fathoms, a little to the southward of 
the outer buoy ; but it is not very good on account of the nature of the 
l^ottom, which is coral with sandy patches, and the strong gusts off shore, 
which blow continually from off the Kohala hills in the day time, but 
generally cease at sunset during the N.E. trade; and vessels are liable to 
drag off the bank, which is steep-to. This anchorage therefore is but 
indifferent, and, with winds to the westward of north or south, would be 
untenable. 

Freight is disembarked and shipped at night, during the greater part of 
the year. 

The soil along this shore is barren for 3 or 4 miles inland, owing to the 
want of rain. The face of the country is regular, ascending gradually from 
the coast to the summits of the high land. 

ThO coast from Mahukona to Kawaihae bay appears clear of off- 
lying dangers, and no bottom was obtained with 20 fathoms of line, at a 
distance of 1^ miles from the shore. 

Kawaihae bay is an extensive open bay, about 8 miles wide, and 
4 miles deep, fully exposed to the westward. 

Situated in a grove of cocoa-nut trees, just behind a sandy point, near 
the centre of the bay, is the village of Kawaihae, the sea-port of the northern 
districts of Hawaii; The village consists of a general store, two or three 
houses, and several huts along the shore. In front of the village is a pier 
for boats.* 

So much of the soil of this district as lies along the coast, though rich, 
is badly watered, and 7 or 8 miles in the interior from Kawaihae bay, it 
becomes exceedingly rocky and barren. The high land to the eastward of 
Kawaihae causes almost a perpetual calm. The climate is, upon the whole, 
unpleasant, especially at Waimea, about 9 miles eastward of Kawaihae, in 
consequence of the trade wind, which is exceedingly strong, bringing with 
it a mist towards sunset. This wind rushes furiously down between 
the mountains which bound the valley of Waimea, and becomes very 
dangerous to shipping in the bay. It is called by the natives mumuku^ 
and is foretold by them from an illuminated streak that is seen far inland 
which is believed to be caused by the reflection of the twilight on the mist 
that always accompanies the mumuku. 

The principal exports of the 'district are hides, tallow, nnd beef. 



♦ See plan on sheet Nq. 1377. 



134 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [chap. t. 

On approaching the anchorage, a good land-mark is a conspicuons 
monnd, situated a short distance south of the TilUigey which was used 
formerly as a place for offering human sacrifices to the god of war. Another 
conspicuous mark is a white tomb^ in the form of a pyramid, lying 2| cables 
£. i S. of the lighthouse. 

LIGHT. — K fixed white light is exhibited to serve as a guide to the 
anchorage, elcTated 50 feet above the sea, and visible in clear weather from 
a distance of 10 miles. The light is placed upon a pillar, in the form of a 
pyramid, which is painted white. 

Supplies. — Beef may be obtained here at 6 cents a lb., potatoes are 
abundant, and plenty of fish may be caught with the seine. 

The watering place, which is in a small sandy bay, is only a pool of rain- 
water collected in a hole, and would require 500 feet of hose to pump it 
into a boat. In the summer the water becomes somewhat stagnant, and 
unfit for drinking purposes ; in winter, more rain falls, and it then becomes 
a stream. 

Buoy. — A red buoy, for the local mail steamer, is moored in 6^ 
fathoms, about 3 cables from the shore ; but it is jiot always in position. 
Vessels are not supposed to anchor inside this buoy* 

Reef. — Towards the bottom of the bay there is a coral reef which dries 
in places at low water, extending for nearly three-quarters of a mile from 
the shore, in front of the village. This reef is a great inconvenience to the 
anchorage, which at best is but an indifferent one. From the N.W. extre- 
mity of this reef the lighthouse bears N.E. by N. \ N. There is a boat 
passage round the north end of the reef, close along the shore, where 
landing is easy. 

Anohorftge. — The best anchorage is in 9 or 10 fathoms^ with the 
lighthouse in line with a flagstaff erected on a bill, some way up the slope, 
bearing East about 4 cables, llie bottom inside this depth is very uneven, 
there being coral heads with only 4 J to 5 fathoms on them, and having 
depths of 7 to 9 fathoms between. 

With strong westerly winds the anchorage would be very exposed, and 
most unsafe to remain at. 

The sea breeze from the westward lasts all day, and the N.E. trade or 
land breeze, sometimes blowing strong, all night. 

Caution, — ^It is necessary to approach this anchorage with the greatest 
caution, as in fine calm weather the swell seldom breaks on the reef 
extending from the shore off the village. 

COftSt. — From the bottom of Kawaihae bay the coast trends for 30 
miles, S.W. by S., to Lae-o-ka |Mano or Shark point then S. \ W. for 
10 miles to Kalaua, the western extreme of the island, where it turns to the 
eastward for 3 miles to Efdlua. Along the whole of this coast there is no 



CHAP, v.] HAWAII. — KAWAIHAE BAY. — ^KAILTJA BAY. 135 

shelter, and the shore line has been much altered by the lava streams which 
have flowed from the crater of Mauna Loa. 

Eailua bay is a small indentation in the coast, 2^ cables wide, and 
2 cables deep ; it is exposed to the southward and westward, but affords 
good anchorage at most seasons of the year.* 

At the time of the visit of the U.S. Exploring Expedition in 1841, the 
residence of the governor of Hawaii island was established here, and great 
advances were being made in the civilized arts and industries. On a point 
on the west side of the bay is the tomb of king Kamehameha, which is in 
lat. 19° 37' 20" N., long. 156° 4' 20" W. 

Bain seldom falls on this coast, except in showers, and a rainy day once 
in the year is looked upon as something remarkable. This, together with 
the absence of all dew, prevents the existence of much cultivation ; it affords 
nevertheless a coarse vegetation, sufficient to pasture a few hundred goats ; 
but a mile back from the shore, the surface is covered with herbage, which 
maintains cattle, &c. ; and two miles in the interior there is sufficient 
moisture to keep up a constant verdure. 

The temperature is mild and equable ; during the winter the thermometer 
ranges from 64° to 85°, and in summer from 68° to 86°. 

The prevailing winds are the land and sea breezes, which are very 
regular ; there are also strong north winds, but the most severe g^es are 
those, from the south-west, which last from a few hours to two or three days 
and render the anchorage unsafe. 

In approaching Kailua bay, bring the summit of Hualalai, 8275 feet, 
to bear N.E. by E., and steer in on that bearing ; the town may be recog- 
nized by the two churches, and the cocoa-nut groves on the shore to the 
westward. 

A small light is exhibited from a stand on the west side of the bay, 
when schooners or coasting steamers are expected, and is visible for about 6 
miles. 

There is a most convenient landing-place on a sandy beach, on the west 
side of the bay, formed by the jutting out of two points, between which is 
a small cove, protected from the surf by some rocks. 

In 1876, H.M.S. Myrmidon anchored here in 13 fathoms, sand ; with 
West low point N. 73° W. ; largest church N. 35° B. 

Coast. — From Kailua the coast trends in almost a straight line, 
S. by E. ^ E., 8^ miles to Kealakekua bay. 

Eealakekua bay, situated on the west side of Hawaii, affords the 
best anchorage on that coast, and lies between Lava and Cocoa-nut points, 
which are 1^ miles apart, N.W., and S.E. of one another.* 



■tf 



"* See plan on sheet No. 1877. 



136 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [ch^p. v. 

The bay derives its name (path of the gods) from a slide in the hill, still 
visible, which the gods are said to have used in order to cross the bay 
quickly. 

The climate is mild throughout the district ; the thermometer ranging^ 
from 62° to 76° in winter, and from 70° to 86° in summer. Strong winds 
are seldom experienced ; and during the day there is a cool sea-breeze 
which changes to the land-breeze at night. 

Kona, a village a few miles inland, is considered one of the most healthy 
spots in the whole group, and especially beneficial to people suffering fi-om 
weakness or disease of lungs or chest. Many visitors come here front 
California to pass the winter, and there are one or two commodious boarding 
houses for their accommodation. 

From Lava point, the coast, which is steep-to and 1 5 to 20 feet high, 
trends in a slight curve, E. by S., for 6 cables to Cook point, which is flat 
and barren, and forms the southern point of Kaavoloa cove. From thence 
the coast turns to the northward for 2 cables to Pillar point nt the head of 
the cove. 

A small light is exhibited from Cook point, when the local mail steamer 
is expected. 

Kealakekua bay is well known to history, as having been the scene of the 
death of Captain James Cook, B.N., the great navigator, who was killed 
here by the natives on 14th February 1779. 

On the west side of Kaavoloa cove is a village of the same name, where 
the monument in memory of Captain Cook has been erected, but now (1879) 
cocoa-nut and other trees are growing up, and the monument is not readily 
distinguishable from seaward. It is an obelisk on a square foundation^ 
about 26 feet high, in lat. 19° 29' N., long. 156° 2' 40" W.« 

From Pillar point, the coast, which is a high rocky inaccessible cliff from 
400 to 600 feet in height, turns E.S.E. for 9 cables, in almost a straight 
line, to a sandy beach, where the village of Kealakekua is situated near a 
grove of high cocoa-nut trees ; and then for 3 cables S.W. by S. to Peterel 
point, from whence it trends with a curve for 7 cables S.S.W. to Cocoa-nut 
point. 

Cocoa-nut point, the southern extremity of the bay, is low and blacky 
with a fringe of cocoa-nuts along the shore, inside of which, in the first 
rise of the land, is a very conspicuous white church. 



* Placed in position by H.M.S. Scout, Captain R. P. Cator, in November 1874, and 
bears the following inscription : — 

" In memory of the great circumnavigator, Capt. J. Cook, R.N., who discovered these 
islands on Jan. 18, A.D. 1778, and fell near this spot on Feb. 14, AD. 1779. This 
monument "was erected in Nov., A.D. 1874, by some of his fellow-countrymen.*' 



CHAP, v.] HAWAII. — ^KEALAKEKTJA BAY. 137 

Between Kealakckua and Cocoa-nut point, the coast has a rugged 
appearance for about a mile inland, beyond which the country rises with a 
gradual ascent towards Mauna Loa, and is overspread with cultivated 
enclosures and groves of cocoa-nut trees where there are numerous 
villages. 

The shore all round the bay is covered with a black rock, which makes 
landing very dangerous when there is any swell setting in ; except at the 
village of Kealakekua, where there is a fine sandy beach, with a moral or 
burying place at one extremity and a small well of fresh water at the 
other. 

Directions. — ^The summit of Mauna Loa bearing E. f N. will lead to 
Kealakekua bay, but should the summits of the mountains be obscured, 
which is often the case, the church on the slope of the hill, about a quarter 
of a mile inside Peterel point, is a good mark. 

Landing. — The best landing-place is about half a cable to the 
southward of Cook's monument, from whence there is a good road leading 
to Xona. 

Supplies. — Beef, fowls, sweet potatoes, and plantains can be obtained 
in Kealakekua, also water at Niapupu, a village south of Kealakekua, but 
the tank is falling into decay, and the water is brackish in all wells in the 
vicinity of Kaavoloa cove. 

Anchorage. — This bay is easy of access, but the anchorage is not 
good, owing to the great depth of water and foul state of the bottom. 

Between Cook and Peterel points there are depths of 30, 25, aud 10 
fathoms, bottom chiefly composed of sand and shells ; in the vicinity of 
Peterel point, however, the bottom is rocky. 

Large vessels usually anchor in the middle of the bay, in 26 fathoms, 
sand, with Cook's monument bearing N.W., and Cocoa-nut point S. ^ E. 

Kaavoloa cove, though exposed to winds from south and south-west, may 
be considered a safe anchorage except during the winter months. Cook 
point partially protecting the anchorage from the swell. In 1876, H.M.S. 
Fantome anchored in Kaavoloa cove in 30 fathoms water, abreast Cook's 
monument, mooring with a stern hawser to the shore ; and during her stay 
of six weeks (in October and November) southerly winds were experienced 
only on two occasions, when a disagreeable swell set in although the wind 
was light, landing however was not interrupted. 

Earthquake. — On 24th February 1877 a slight shock of earthquake 
was felt at Kaavoloa and steam was observed to be rising from the sea off 
Cocoa-nut point ; on visiting the spot, it was found that lumps of porous 
lava, some nearly a cubic foot in size, were rising to the surface, whence, on 
the contained gas escaping, they sank again. This part was sounded over 
on 4th March, but nothing less was obtained than 23 fathoms at 400 yards 



138 SANDWICH ISLANDS. foHAP. v. 

from the shore, 50 and 67 fathoms and 80 fathoms a little further out. At 
the time of the earthquake, a crack opened in the ground from Cocoa-nut 
point in an E.S.E. direction, extending for more than a mile, in some places 
4 inches hroad and 50 feet deep. 

Coast. — From Kealakekua bay the coast trends in a general direction 
of S. by E. for 25 miles to Kaulanamauna, and then in a cnrre to the 
E.S.E. for 20 miles to Ka Lae, the south point of the island. 

Almost the whole of this coast is a line of lava. This frequently lies in 
large masses for miles in extent, and is in other places partially broken, 
exhibiting perpendicular cliffs, against which the sea dashes with fury. 
This formation extends half a mile into the interior, and as the distance 
from the sea increases, the soil becomes richer and more productive. The 
face of the country^ even within this rocky barrier, is rough and covered 
with blocks and beds of lava, more or less decomposed. The land in places 
reaches the altitude of tv/o thousand feet, and at a distance of two miles 
from the coast begins to be wall covered with woods of various kinds of 
trees, which are rendered almost impassable by an undergrowth of vines 
and ferns. In some places these strips of woods descend to within a mile 
of the shore, having escaped destruction. These are in no case parallel to 
the shore, but lie always in the direction which the streams of lava would 
take in descending from the mountains. 

ALENUIHAHA CHANNEL, which separates Hawaii from 
Maui and Kahulaui islands, is 24 miles across, and clear of dangers. 

During the N.E. trade, the wind frequently blows through the channel 
with great violence, and there is also a strong current setting to the west- 
ward ; vessels from any of the western ports of Hawaii are therefore 
recommended to keep close in under the lee of the island until reaching 
Upolu point, when they will be enabled to fetch across to the channel on 
the west side of Maui. Ships from the northward, bound to Hilo, will 
probably find it impossible to weather Upolu point from the west side of 
Maui, but on getting under the lee of Hawaii the trade wind fails until 
reaching the south point of the island, when they will have to beat against 
the wind and current along the south-east coast, as befora mentioned. A 
steamer would find it advantageous to round Upolu point and proceed 
along the east coast of the island, as the trade wind fails when close in to 
the point and does not blow home with any force along the whole of this 
shore. 

MAUI ISLAND, 43 miles long in a W. by N. and E. by S. 
direction, is divided into two oval-shaped peninsula^, connected by a low 
isthmus, 6 miles across, and only a few feet higher than the beach. 

At a distance it appears like two distinct islands, but on nearer approach 
a low isthmus is seen uniting the two peninsulas. The whole island, which 
is entirely volcanic, was probably produced by the action of two adjacent 



CHAP, v.] ALENUIHAHA CHANNEL. — MAUI. 139 

volcanoes, which have ejected the immense masses of matter of which it is 
composed. The appearance of Maui resembles Tahiti more than the 
neighbouring island of HawaiL The eastern peninsula^ which is the 
larger of the two, is loftj ; but though its summits are often seen above 
the clouds, they are never covered with snow.' 

Although on a first view the peninsulas resemble each other, on closer 
examination they are found to be very different. East Maui is the larger 
of the two, and rises in one unbroken mountain 10,030 feet in height, 
which falls almost perpendicularly towards the sea. West Maui has many 
sharp peaks and ridges, which are divided by deep valleys, and which, in 
descending towards the sea, open out and form sloping plains of consider- 
able extent on the north and south sides. The highest peak of West Maui, 
Mauna Ika, is 6,130 feet in height. 

The isthmus, which is very low, consists of sand which is constantly 
shifting, and thrown up into dunes. It is too dry to be fit for cultivation, 
but during nine months of the year it is a fine grazing country, and feeds 
large herds of cattle that are mostly owned by foreigners. 

East Maui, though mountainous, has most cultivated land, and the rich 
volcanic soil of the Kula district, on the south-west side of the island, 
raises abundant crops of potatoes. Wheat and other grain is also culti- 
vated, and increasing. 

The productions of Maui are the same as those of the other islands : to 
these may be added a few fruits, as grapes, &c. 

Mauna Haleakala is somewhat like Mauna Kea in Hawaii : it is 
destitute of trees to the height of about 2,000 feet ; then succeeds a belt of 
forest, to the height of 6,500 feet, and again, the summit which is cleft by 
a deep gorge, is bare. 

The crater of Haleakala, or house of the sun, is a deep gorge, open at 
the north and east, forming a kind of elbow : the bottom, as ascertained by 
the barometer, was 2,783 feet below the summit peak, and 2,093 feet below 
the wall. Although its sides are steep, yet a descent is practicable at 
almost any part. The inside of the crater is entirely bare of vegetation, 
and from the bottom arise some large hiUs of scoria and sand : some of the 
latter are of an ochre-red colour at the summit, with small craters in the 
centre. All have the appearance of volcanic action, but the natives have 
no tradition of an eruption. 

Coasts — ^The south-west point of Maui, cape Hanamanioa, is formed 
by rugged, craggy rocks, and the sea breaks at a little distance to the 
north-westward of it. The edge of the bank is very steep-to, suddenly 
shoaling from no bottom at 80 fathoms to 25 fathoms, and then 10 fathoms. 

From cape Hanamanioa, the south coast trends E. by N. ^ N. and N.E. 
for 25 miles to Alau islet. The whole of this shore is rugged and affords 
no anchorage or shelter. From seaward, the land appears to ascend 



140 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [chap, v, 

abruptly ; it is densely covered with trees and vegetation, while here and 
there a few habitations appear. 

AIeu islet, lying off the east coast of Maui, is very small, and has a 
reef extending about half a mile to the south-east. Other patches, with 
3 to 5 fathoms water on them, lie to the south and west of the islet, distant 
about 2 cables. 

Rock. — A sunken rock, with about 8 feet on it at low water, and 
13 fathoms close around, lies about three-quarters of a mile south-east of 
Alau islet, with the following bearings : Kauiki head, N. 32° W. ; west 
extreme of Alau islet, N. 62° W * 

Eauiki head, the eastern point of Maui, is an old crater which is 
.connected by a low spit to the main land, and at a distance appears like an 
island. 

Hana harbour is formed by the peninsula of Kauiki and the islands 
off it, and Nanualele point, the distance between which is only 700 yards. 
The anchorage is well protected from the wind and sea, and is a very 
convenient one. 

To enter the harbour, a ship coming from the southward should keep 
about half a mile from Kauiki head, until the entrance bears S. W., as there 
are besides the Twin rocks, 14 and 20 feet high, two pin rocks, 3 feet and 
5 feet above water with deep water all around, which are difficult to 
distinguish. 

Steer for the entrance on a S.W. course, keeping close to the rocks on 
the port hand in entering, with a store-house down by the jetty in line 
with a Chinese cook-shop, a short distance above it, bearing S.W., and 
when the two black rocks off the inner point are in line £. by N. J N., 
anchor in 5 fathoms, sand, stones, and mud.* 

H.M.S. Sappho anchored with the inner black rocks in line, N. 70^ E.; 
Nanualele point, N. 22° E., and had a clear swinging beith with 2^ shackles 
of cable out. 

The anchorage inside the two black rocks is only one cable wide, as a 
spit of lava runs out in the centre of the bay, forming a middle ground 
with only 6 feet of water over it on which the sea generally breaks ; but 
outside a line' drawn between the inner black rocks and Nanualele point, 
there is anchorage right across the bay in from 4 to 9 fathoms. 

From information obtained here, it would be better for ships coming 
from leeward ports to take the passage to the northward of Maui, thereby 
aroiding the very strong trade wind and current experienced in rounding 
the S.E. point of Maui. Many steamers have been unable to steam against 
it at times, and H.M.S. Sappho, with top-gallant masts on deck, was only 
able to steam about 3i knots an hour. 



* Commander Bouvene F. Clark, H.M.S. Sappho, 1882. 



CHAP, v.] MAUI. — HANA HAEBOUB. — ^KAHULUI HABBOUB. 141 

Coast* — From Hana harbour the coast trends for 20 miles W.N.W.^ 
and then 1 1 miles W.S.W. to Kahului harbour. There is no shelter or 
anchorage in all this distance, and the coast is fuUj exposed to the force of 
the trade wind. 

The north coast of East Maui is a succession of deep ravines, which 
gradually diminish in breadth as they ascend, and are finally lost on the 
flanks of the mountains. Travelling along the coast in consequence 
becomes almost impossible. Cascades are seen falling in these ravines, 
several hundred feet in height, having, however, but little volume of water. 

Eahului harbour, situated between the coral reefs on the northern 
side of the low isthmus joining the two peninsulas, is about 3^ cables 
wide across the entrance, and 4 cables deep, and fully exposed to the 
northward.* 

Kahului is an important place for exporting the produce of the northern 
part of Maui, and there are railways connecting it with Wailuku to the 
westward^ and Spreckelsville and Haiku oh the east, fn 1881, a jetty was 
being built out from the shore near the custom house, which it was pro- 
posed to extend as far as the edge of the reef, but at that date it was 
unfinished. 

Hebron's flagstaff, near the low point, north-east of the town is in 
lat. 20° 54' 15" N., long. 156** 27' 50" W. 

A boacon l^as been erected on the west extreme of the reef on the 
eastern side of the harbour, S.S.W. ^ W., of which are two buoys at a 
half and one cable respectively. 

Anchorage may be obtained in from 2^ to 7 fathoms, with the 
shore end of the unfinished jetty, bearing S.B. by E., 2^ and 3J cables 
respectively. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, at full and change, at 1 1 hrs. 40 m. Springs 
rise 3 to 4 feet. 

Wailuku. — About two miles north-west of Kahului, is the flourish- 
ing village of this name, in which is the female seminary, which is an 
extensive range of coral buildings, beautifully situated on an inclined 
plane, with high and massive precipices behind, and considered one of 
the best organised establishments in the Sandwich islands. 

Coast. — From Kahului, the east coast of West Maui trends N. W. ^ N., 
for 7^ miles to Kahakuloa point, and is an abrupt precipice several hundred 
feet in height. 

From Kahakuloa point, the coast trends West for 7 miles, and then south 
for 9 miles to Lahaina. 



* See plan on sheet. No. 1877. 



142 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [chap. v. 

Lahaina, situated on the west side of West Maui, was at one time a 
flourishing place, and much frequented by whaling vessels for refitting and 
obtaining supplies, but of late years since the whale fishery has fallen ofi, 
Lahaina has consequently sufiered, and is now only visited by vessels 
loading with sugar, which is grown on the estates in the vicinity. Mr. 
Turton, an American, owns the largest estate, which in 1877 produced 
2,000 tons of sugar of very good quality. 

The town of Lahaina is built along the beach for a distance of three- 
quarters of a mile : it is principally composed of grass-houses situated as 
near the beach Its possible : it has one principal street, with a few others 
running at right angles. From seaward, the town may be recognised by 
some conspicuous buildings, especially the Gk>vemment house, which is 
near the beach, and has a tall flagstaff before it. 

There is an open roadstead off the town, which is completely sheltered 
from the trade wind by the high land of Maui ; but the holding ground 
has been reported to be indifferent, the layer of sand being very thin with 
rocky ground below. 

Supplies of all sorts can be obtained here ; beef, vegetables, fruit, 
and water in abundance. 

LIGHT. — ^A lighthouse has been erected on the beach, near Govern- 
ment house, fi:om which* two white lights, horizontal and about 4 feet 
apart, are exhibited, which are visible in clear weather for a distance of 
about 6 miles ; but they cannot be distinguished as two separate lights, 
until within 1^ miles of the anchorage. 

Landing. — The landing place is at a small pier, extending from the 
lighthouse, and protected by a breakwater. 

Buoy. — A buoy has been moored off the pier for the use of the local 
mail steamer. 

Anchorage. — ^As the shoals on the north-west side of Maui extend 
a considerable distance from the shore, vessels bound for Lahaina roadstead 
should not approach the land to the westward of it, nearer than 3 miles^ 
until the lighthouse bears N.E. ^ N., when a good berth will be found in 
10 to 15 fathoms, sand, with the lighthouse on that bearing. 

From the time of obtaining soundings, the water shoals gradually to the 
shore, and anchorage may be obtained in any depth ; 10 fathoms for a 
vessel of moderate size, and 13 fathoms for a large ship is to be preferred. 

The anchorage used by the pilots is in 12 fathoms, sand, with Bound 
hill, Makena, in line with the south-west point of the roadstead. 

Tides. — The tide at Lahaina is irregular, being somewhat dependant 
on the winds : it runs to the north-west generally sixteen hours out of the 
twenty-four. 



OHAP.vO MAUI. — ^LAHAIKA. — ^EAMALALAEA BAY. 143 

Tiflrh ftJ TIfll'^l^^-. — The most remarkable buildiog to be seen as the 
roadstead of Lahaina is approached, is the seminary of Lahainaluna, which 
was established in 1831, situated on the side of the mountain that rises 
behind Lahaina ("luna " meaning ** above "). 

Coast. — ^From Lahaina the coast trends for about 9 miles to Kamala- 
laea bay. The southern side of West Maui has a forbidding appearance ; 
the shores, however, are not so steep and rocky as elsewhere, and have 
generally a sandy beach. 

There is a roadstead here called by Vancouver, Patoa, which is repre- 
sented as a good anchorage, and may be easily found by attending to the 
following description : — The large bay, formed by the two peninsulas and 
the sandy isthmus, has its western side formed by high rocky precipices, 
that rise perpendicularly from the sea. To the westward of these preci- 
pices the coast is chiefly composed of sandy beaches, and the mountains at 
some distance from the shore form two remarkable valleys^ separated from 
each other by a high rugged mountain, seemingly detached from the rest, 
and approaching nearer to the beach than those to the left and right of it. 
The anchorage at Patoa is abreast the easternmost of these valleys, which 
appeared fruitful and well cultivated. 

Eamalalaea bay is the large bay on the south-west side of Maui 
between the two peninsulas, the western side of which is formed by rocky 
cliffs and precipices. Nearly in the middle of the western side is a village 
called Mackerrey, by Vancouver, off which there is anchorage in 7 fathoms, 
sand and broken coral, a little more than a quarter of a mUe off 
shore. 

The soundings on the eastern side of the bay are regular, but very rocky. 

Near the head of this bay, in the north-east corner, is the small village 
of Maalaea, where there are some houses for stowing sugar. 

Supplies*— Besides sugar, there is a great quantity of wheat, maize, 
and potatoes grown in this district ; and supplies of fresh provisions are 
plentifiUly obtained from Wailuku, which is about 6 miles distant. 

Anchorage. — ^The anchorage off this place is not good, as the trade 
wind blows across the low isthmus in heavy gusts, and communication 
with the shore by boats is sometimes interrupted. 

There is a small pier here for loading and unloading schooners, and 
boats can always go alongside, the channel leading to the landing place 
being about 20 yards wide, between two coral reefs. 

A spar buoy has been moored in 6 fathoms, near the anchorage, for the 
use of the local mail steamer, but it is recommended not to be used, as the 
chain is small, and has been down a long time. 

Care must be taken in entering to keep the buoy well on the starboard 
bow ; the water shoals gradually if not too near the western shore. 



141 SANDWICH islands/ [chap. v. 

A good anchorage may be picked up in 9 fathoms, sand, with the pier 
head, N. 19° W. : spar buoy, N. 19° E. ; west point of bay, S. 58° W. 

H.M.S. Myrmidon anchored inside the spar buoy in 6 fathoms, sand, with 
west point of bay S. 45° W., and a remarkable black hill on the isthmus 
N. 9° W. 

Coast. — From Maalaea, the coast trends S. by E. in almost a straight 
line to Makena, near the south-west extreme of the island. 

Makena or Makee'S landing, is u small indentation in the 
west coast of East Maui, near the south-western extremity of the island, 
and derives the latter name, from a planter whose estate is situated on the 
side of Maun a Haleakala, on. a plateau 2,000 feet above the sea, and about 
5 miles east of the landing place.* 

Makena may be recognised from seaward by Round hill (Fuu Olai) 
500 feet high, with a flagstaff on its summit, and situated about a mile 
south of the landing ; on a nearer approach, the stone church and several 
houses near the landing place will be seen. 

Off the lauding place, there are two mooring buoys for the trading 
schooners, the inner buoy lies in 5 fathoms and the outer in 8 fathoms. 

The anchorage is exposed to the heavy squalls, ivhich occasionally blow 
over the low isthmus in the centre of Maui ; and landing is at times im- 
practicable for ship's boats, owing to the heavy surf. The holding ground 
also is not good, and vessels have sometimes dragged in the squalls. 

The anchorage is in 10 to \9, fathoms, sand, about 3 cables from the 
landing place, with Round hill flagstaff, bearing S. J W. ; landing ehed on 
beach, E. by N. f N. ; stone church, E. by S. | S. From this position, the 
depths gradually decrease to 3 fathoms near the shore. 

MOLOEINI is a small, barren, horse-shoe shaped island, lying 
W. by S. I S., 2 J miles from Makena. Lying almost in the middle of the 
channel between East Maui and Kahulaui, it would prove a dangerous 
obstacle to navigation, were it not so much elevated above the sea, as to 
be at all times visible from vessels passing between the islands. 

This island is only visited by fishermen, who dry their nets on its barren 
surface. 

KAHULAUI, which is separated from East Maui by a channel 
6 miles wide (Alalakeiki channel), is about 11 miles in length, north-east and 
south-weat, and 7 miles wide. It is low, and almost destitute of every kind 
of shrub or verdure, excepting a species of coarse grass. The rocks of 
which it is formed are volcanic, but nothing is known of any active or 
extinct craters on the island ; and, from its shape and appearance, it is not 
improbable that it once formed a part of Maui, from which it may have 

* See plan on sheet No. 1377. 



CHAP. T. ] MAKBNA. — KAHTJLAUI.— LANAI. 145 

been detached by some violent convulsion connected with the action of the 
adjacent volcanoes of Maai or Hawaii. 

At one time this island was used as a place for transporting convicts to, 
but is now chiefly useful as a sheep run, the soil of decomposed lava being 
of too poor a quality for cultivation. 

Shoal. — Off the south- west extremity, Kealaikahiki point, is a shoal 
which was first soen by Cook on his discovery of the island. In 1841, it 
was examined by Wilkes, who proved it to bo much nearer the land than 
was anticipated. This shoal lies a mile and a half from the point, and has 
H fathoms of water over it. Vessels may pass within two miles of the 
point with safety ; bat as it is difficult to estimate the distance, it will be 
better to give the point a berth of three miles, as nothing will be lost by so 
doing. 

IiANAI, lying 16 miles north-west of Kahulaui, and separated from 
West Maui by a channel 7^ miles wide ( Auau channel) is a dome-shaped 
island, 15 miles long, in a north-west and south-east direction, and 10 miles 
broad. It appears to have been frequently rent, large fissures being 
apparent in its sides. 

The centre of this island is much more elevated than Kahulaui, but is 
neither so high nor broken as any of the other islands. Great part of it is 
•barren, and the island in general suffers much from the long droughts 
which frequently prevail ; the ravines and glens, notwithstanding, are filled 
with thickets of small trees. The island is volcanic, the soil shallow, and 
by no means fertile; the shores abound with shell-fish. 

Near the shore, on the west side, are some rocks called the Five Needles, 
which are about 120 feet in height. 

The southern shore of Lanai is usually avoided by masters of vessels 
acquainted with the navigation among these islands, on account of the light 
and variable winds or calms generally experienced there ; the trade wind 
being interrupted by the high land of Maui and Lanai. 

It is not unusual for vessels to be becalmed here for six, eight, or even 
ten days. The natives, in the small craft belonging to the islands, usually 
keep close inshore, avail themselves of the gentle land breeze to pass the 
point in the evening, and run into Lahaina with the sea breeze in the 
morning ; but this is attended with danger, as there is usually a heavy 
swell rolling in towards the land. 

MOLOEAI is a long island, situated north of Lanai, from which it is 
separated by a channel 6 J miles wide; and north-west of West Maui 
7^ miles. 

It is a long, irregular island, apparently formed by a chain of volcanic 
mountains, about 35 miles long, east and west, and 8 miles broad. The 
mountains are high, and broken by deep ravines and watercourses, the sides 

n 16615. K 



146 SAKDMTICH ISLANDS, [chap. v. 

of which are frequently clothed with yerdare, and ornamented with shrubs 
and trees. One-third of the island, towards the west end, is a barren waste, 
not susceptible of cultivation, except in the rainy season ; it has in con- 
sequence but few inhabitants, who are engaged mostly in fishing. The 
eastern two-thirds are almost one entire mountain, rising gradually from 
the south, until it attains an elevation of 2,500 feet ; while on the north it 
is almost perpendicular. 

On the south side, there is a narrow strip of land, not exceeding one- 
fourth of a mile in width, the soil of which is very rich, and which contains 
the greater part of the population. Owing to the want of moisture, how- 
ever, few plants will thrive even here ; resort is therefore had to the 
uplands, which are found to be susceptible of the highest degree of 
cultivation. 

Lae O ka LaaU, the south-west extremity of Molokai is a low black 
point, in lat. 21° 6' N., long. 157° 19' W. 

LIGHT. — ^A lighthouse has been erected on Lae o ka Laau from which 
SL^xed.white light is exhibited, elevated 50 feet above the sea^ and visible 
in clear weather from a distance of 1 1 miles. 

The lighthouse is painted white, the lantern red. 

Coast. — On the south side of the island, there are several small harbours 
within the reef, the best of which is Kaunakakai, situated 15 miles E. ^ N. 
of Lae o ka Laau. 

Caution. — ^The south coast of Molokai should not be approached at 
night without local knowledge, as the reef which fringes the shore is 
steep -to, and extends seaward in some places to a. distance of 3 miles. 

Eaunakakai is situated on the south side, and midway between 
the two extremes of Molokai, and from it the west extreme of Lanai island 
bears south. 

From Lahaina, Molokai has the appearance of being two islands, the 
lowest land not being visible ; a course steered for this apparent channel 
will lead direct to the town of Kaunakakai. 

There is an outer and inner anchorage at Kaunakakai ; the former is not 
good, owing to the uneven nature of the bottom, and the latter affords but 
a limited space ; there is said to be not less than 4 fathoms over the bar 
leading to the inner anchorage, and 5 to 7 fathoms inside. 

Two posts are erected on the shore for a leading mark, and a red buoy is 
moored in 5 fathoms, within the bar, for the local mail steamer. Vessels 
approaching the outer anchorage should bring the posts in line, and anchor 
in 10 to 13 fathoms, rock and sand ; this mark also leads in mid-channel to 
the inner anchorage; these posts may be easily identified by having a 
lantern on each, from which lights are exhibited when the mail steamer is 
expected. 



CHAP, v.] MOLOKAI. — KAUNAKAKAI. — KALANAO. 147 

Quail and pheasants may be shot (with permission from the Government 
at Honolulu), but no other supplies are to be obtained at Kaunakakai.* 

Coast. — From Kaunakakai the coast trends E. by S. J S. 5 miles, 
and then N.E. by E., 16 miles to the south-east extremity of the island. 
About 1^ miles south of this point, is a small, barren, rocky islet, called 
Mokuo Niki. 

From the south-east point, the coast turns to the northward - for about 
2 miles to Kalaua, the north-east extreme, and is f rontedby a reef extending 
about a mile from the shore. 

From Kalaua, the north shore trends for 16 miles W. ^ S., to a peninsula 
which projects about 2 miles from the coast, on which is the leper 
reservation for the Sandwich islands. 

Ealanao '^ situated near the centre of the north coast of Molokai, at 
the base of very precipitous mountains. The leper establishment was 
erected here about 1865, and since its erection, and the consequent 
separation of the victims of this terrible disease from the healthy 
inhabitants of the islands, the spread of the malignant malady has been 
arrested, and is now much on the decrease. 

The anchorage is to the southward of a long, low point, extending from 
the foot of two steep remarkable mountains ; it cannot, however, be 
considered safe, being exposed to the prevailing trade wind, and the heavy 
swell that occasionally sets in. 

A red buoy has been moored here in 13 fathoms for the local mail 
steamers, which, if brought in line with the church on an east bearing, will 
lead to the best anchorage, in 13 to 16 fathoms, dark sand. 

H.M.S. Peterel anchored here in 13 J fathoms, with church, E. ^ N. ; 
North point N. J E., about half a cable west of the buoy. 

Landing at Kalanao, always difficult, is at times dangerous, and no 
supplies can be obtained.* 

Coast. — From Kalanao, the coast trends for 12 miles W. by N. to 
Lae o ka Ilio, the north-west extremity of the island, and then turns to the 
southward for 9 miles to Lae o ka Laau ; between these two points a com- 
modious bay had been stated to exist, but the whole intermediate space is 
nearly a straight shore, composed alternately of rugged rocks and sandy 
beaches. In 1793, Vancouver anchored for the night in 19 fathoms water, 
sandy and bad holding ground ; in working up, the soundings were pretty 
regular from 17 to 60 fathoms, fine sandy bottom ; the anchorage was 
within a mile of the breakers, Lae o ka Laau bearing South, distant 4 miles ; 
and Lae o ka Ilio N. 26° E., about the same distance. This position is as 
close as vessels can lie with safety, as this side of the island is exposed to 



* Navigating Lieutenant N. Child, H.M.S. Peterel, 1875. 

K 2 



148 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [chap, v- 

North and N.W. winds, and to a heavy sea that is almost constantly 
rolling from that quarter on the shore, which makes landing almost 
impracticable. 

OAHU, lying to the west-north-west of Molokai and separated from 
it by the Kaiwi channel, 22 miles in breadth, may be considered the 
principal island of the group, as it contains the port chiefly frequented by 
the shipping of the North Pacific, and is also the seat of Government. 

This, the most fertile of the Sandwich islands, is about 40 miles long, 
N.W. and S.E., and 20 miles broad, resembling in the varied features of its 
natural scenery, several of the Society islands. lis appeanmcc from the 
anchorage off Honolulu is remarkably picturesque: a chain of lofty 
mountains rises near the centre of the eastern part to a height of 3,175 feet, 
and descends near the middle of the island into the plain of Ewa, which 
divides it from the distant and elevated mountains that rise in a line 
parallel with the north-west shore. The plain of Ewa is nearly 20 miles 
in length, from the Pearl river to Waialua, aud in some parts nine or ten 
miles across: the soil is fertile, and watered by a number of rivulets, 
which wind their way along the deep watercourses that intersect its surface, 
and empty themselves into the sea. 

The whole island is volcanic, and in many parts, extinct craters of large 
dimensions may be seen, the best known of which are Diamond and Punch 
Bowl hills near Honolulu ; but, from the depth of mould with which they 
are covered, and the trees and shrubs with which they are clothed, it may 
be presumed that many ages have elapsed since any eruption took place. 
The plain of Honolulu exhibits in a singular manner the extent and effects 
of volcanic agency ; it is not less than nine or ten miles in length, and, in 
some parts, two miles from the sea to the foot of the mountains : the whole 
plain is covered with a rich alluvial soil, frequently two or three feet 
deep ; beneath this, a layer of fine volcanic ashes and cinders extends to 
the depth of fourteen or sixteen feet ; these also lie upon a stratum of solid 
rock, by no means volcanic, but evidently calcareous, and apparently a kind 
of sediment deposited by the sea, in which branches of white coral, bones 
of fish and animals, and several vane ties of marine shells have been found. 
A number of wells have been dug in different parts of the plain, in which 
after penetrating through the calcareous rock, sometimes twelve or thirteen 
feet, good clear water has been always found ; the water in all these wells 
is perfectly free from any salt or brackish taste, though it invariably rises 
and fttlls with the tide, which would lead to the supposition that it is 
connected with the waters of the adjacent ocean, from which the wells are 
from 100 yards to three-quarters of a mile distant. 

Makapuu point, the eastern extremity of Oahu, is a rocky bluff 
about 300 feet high, in which are numerous caves, the mouths of which are 



CHAP, v.] OAHU.— COAST, 149 

at two^thirds the height, and are accessible bj ascci)ding along the side of 
the bluff obliquely. These caves were formerly used by the natives as 
burial places : they are the effect of volcanic action^ and called Kaualahu 
by the inhabitants. 

Coast. — The north-east side of the island when viewed from seaward, 
appears to be formed of detached hills rising perpendicularly from the sea, 
with rugged and broken summits ; the hills are covered with wood, and the 
valleys between them are fertile and well-cultivated. 

The coast from Makapuu point to the Mokapu peninsula trends north- 
west for 10 miles, and off it are some scattered islets and rocks, some of 
which are as much as a mile from the shoi-e. 

Lying about a mile north of the eastern extreme of Mokapu peninsula, 
are some rocks called Moku Mauu. 

Between Mokapu peninsula and Kaoio point, 6 miles to the north-west, 
is a deep indentation or bay which is almost completely blocked by reefs 
and shoals, except under the lee of the peninsula, where is the harbour of 
Waialai ; but the passage in through the reefs has only a depth of 9 feet, 
which is too little to be of use, except for the smaller coasting vessels. 

Kaneohe, in the district of Kulau, is the principal place on this side of 
the island, and is situated near Waialai harbour, just beneath the Pali of 
Nnuanu, at the back of Honolulu. 

The climate is cooler here by a few degrees than that of the opposite 
or leeward side of the island^ and frequent showers keep up a constant 
verdure. 

From Kaoio point, the trend of the coast is north-west for 14 miles to 
Kahuku point, the northern extreme of the island, which is low and ^at, 
and has a reef extending off it to a distance of 1^ miles or more. 

Along this coast there is a narrow strip of land, varying from a half to 
two miles in breadth, which is only a few feet above the level of the sea, 
and very fertile, and has a gradual ascent to the foot of the precipices. 

Tho scenery of this district is hardly to be surpassed in beauty, bold- 
ness, and variety ; stupendous precipices rising some two thousand feet 
and more, with small streams rushing over and down their sides. 

From Kahuku point, the coast turns to the S.W. by S. for 1 1 miles to 
Waialua, where there is a large village, and at about a mile from the shore 
there are regular soundings of from 13 to 20 fathoms. 

This coast, from Kahuku point to Waimca, is a level plain about 6 miles 
by 2, but slightly elevated above the sea, and merely a good pasture. At 
many of the frequent holes and crevices in it, may be seen streams of fine 
clear and cool fresh water, making their subterranean way three or four 
feet below the surface from the mountains to the outlets in the sea below 
low water mark. 



150 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [chap. v. 

'W&iniea» bSty is & slight indentation in the coast about 4 miles 
north-east of Waialua, and was visited by the Resolution and Discovery 
in 1779. shortly after the death of Captain Cook; they anchored in 13 
fathoms, sand, with the extreme points of the bay beaiing S.W. by W. \ W. 
and N.E. by E. | E., and the mouth of a river S.E. \ E., distant one mile. 

In the bight of the bay, to the south of the anchorage, there is rocky 
foul ground two miles from the shore ; and there is no landing on the coast 
to leeward, on account of a coral reef which stretches along the shore to 
a distance of half a mile. 

Waialua lies at the northern end of the plain which separates the two 
ranges of mountains, at the foot of the Konahaunui or eastern range of 
mountains, while the northern slope of Kaala, the western range, nestf'ly 
reaches it. 

The coast here forms a small bay, and has a dreary aspect on first 
landing. The soil is sandy and popr, the huts are in ruins, and the 
inhabitants present a miserable, squalid appearance ; but a short distance 
inshore an agreeable change takes place, both in the cultivation and the 
natives. 

It was near this place that Mr. Gooch, the astronomer to Vancouver's 
expedition, and Lieutenant Hergest were killed by the natives in 1792. 

Coast. — From Waialua, the coast trends W. by S. for 9 miles to 
Kaena point, the western extreme of the island, which stretches out in a 
long narrow point, the extremity of which is in lat. 21° 34' N., long. 
158° 17' W. 

From Kaena point, the general trend of the land is S.E. \ S. for 20 miles 
to Laeloa or Barber point, the south-west extreme of the island. This 
side is principally composed of steep craggy mountains, some descending . 
abruptly to the sea, others terminating at a small distance from it, whence 
a low border of land extends to the shore, which is formed by sandy 
beaches, bounded by rocks on which the surf breaks heavily. 

Mauna Kaala, 1,030 feet high, which overlooks this coast, has the 
appearance of being a flat-topped mountain ; but such is not the case, the 
evenness of the ridge alone giving it that appearance. 

Nearly in the middle of this side of the island, is a village, in the 
neighbourhood of which the bases of the mountains are farther from the 
shore, and a narrow valley presenting a fertile and cultivated aspect seems 
to separate and wind some distance through the hills. The shore here 
forms a small sandy bay, and on the southern side between two high rocky 
precipices, in a grove of cocoa-nut trees, is situated the village. In the 
centre of the bay, about a mile north of the village, is a high rock, re- 
markable for its projecting from a sandy beach ; at a distance, it appears to 
be detached to the land. Between this and the high rocky point to the 



CHAP, v.] OAHU. — WAIALUA. — PEARL LOCHS. 151 

southward of tbe village, is a bank of soundings, that extends some distance 
to seaward. On the south side of this bank, the soundings are irregular, 
from 8 to 25 fathoms, rocky bottom ; but to the north of it, near the rock, 
no bottom was obtained with 100 fathoms of line, though not more than a 
quarter of a mile from shore ; this was found to be the case also a little to 
the southward of the bank. 

A short distance north-west of Laeloa point, is a small grove of cocoa-nut 
trees, and along the shore are a few straggling huts. 

Laeloa or Barber point, the south-west extremity of Oahu, runs 
off in a long narrow spit, and has a dangerous reef extending from it to 
the southward. H.M.S. Myrmidon, in 1876, obtained soundings in 
6 fathoms, a mile from the shore, and found the water gradually deepened 
as she increased her distance from the land. 

Coast. — From Laeloa point, the coast trends for 7^ miles E.N.E. to 
the entrance of the Pearl river. The shore is low and flat, covered with 
, bushes and scattered tufts of grass, and fronted by a coral reef from which 
the soundings gradually deepen to seaward. 

Pearl river or Pearl lochs, situated on the south side of the 
island, is a large irregular shaped lagoon or inlet, greatly cut up by pro- 
jecting points and islandb, and the water of which is somewhat freshened at 
its inland extremities by the streams that run into it."* 

Its name is derived from the circumstance that the pearl oyster is found 
here, and is the only place in these islands where it occurs. 

This inlet has somewhat the appearance of a lagoon that has been 
partially filled up by alluvial deposits, and is connected to the sea by a 
narrow channel two miles in length, the entrance to which is through a 
break in the coral reef, 5 miles to the westward of Honolulu. 

There is a bar at the entrance of this channel, on which the depth was 
12 feet in 1882, and would thus appear to be slowly silting up, as in 1841, 
when it was surveyed by the U.S. Exploring Expedition, the least water 
obtained was 15 feet. 

A leading mark for crossing this bar, is Montgomery's flagstaff on the 
Puuloa salt works, on the west side of the channel, in line with the meeting 
of the high land near Waimea, and the neck below it. The channel across 
the bar is not difficult to distinguish, on account of the discoloured water 
on either side. 

After passing the bar, which is 400 feet wide, the depth of water becomes 
ample for large ships, and the basin is sufliciently extensive to accommo- 
date any number of vessels. If the water upon the bar should be deepened, 
it would afford the best and most capacious harbour in the Pacific. As yet, 



* See plan on aheet, No. 1510. 



152 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [cdap. v. 

there is no ueceseity for tbb, as the port of HodoIuIq is sufficient for all 
the present requirements. 

On the wen side of the channel is the village of PuqIoa, id the ueigbbour- 
hood of which are large salt works ; and near the entrance, on the eastern 
side, is a large yellow building, called Queen Emma's house, bnt which is 
not easy to recognise. 

The extensire flats between the Pearl lochs and the seft are generally 
dry and barren, being great stretches of clinkers, with here and there a 
deep pit or crevice ; scattered bushes and a small amount of grass alTbi-d 
pasture for a few cattle that are kept there. 

AloDg the inshore side of the Pearl lochs is a strip of very fertile land of 
variable breadth, part of which is under cultivation ; behind this, the land 
rises gradually to the plain of Ewn. 

Anchorage may be obtaineil olf the entrance to the Pearl river in 6 or 7 
fathoms, which appears to bo perfecily safe in ordinary weather ; with a 
strong trade blowing there in some swell, which causes a vessel to roll 
considerably. 

About two miles to the eastward of the Pearl lochs, and three miles 
north-west of Honolulu, is a remarkable circular salt-water lake, about half 
tt mile in diameter, so impregnated with salt, that twice every year the 
natives take out targe quantities of fine, hard, clear crystalled salt, which 
furnishes a very valuable article of commerce. At the time of the visit of 
the U.S. Exploring Expedition, it was believed by the natives to be 
fnthomlcs.*, but on examination by Commodore Wilkes, it proved to be 
only eighteen inches in depth. 

Between (he Pearl river and Honolulu harbour, at about a mile west- 
ward of the latter, is a gap in the coral reef called the Ealihi entrance ; 
but it only leads on to the coral flat which is very extensive hereabouts, 
and is only fit for canoes to navigate. 

HONOLULU, the capital and principal port of the Sandwich island?, 

ii situated on the south side of Oahu, on a narrow plain at the foot of the 

eastern range of mountains. Its situation was unknown to Cook and the 

early navigator?, and even when visited by Captain Beechey, in 1S27, it 

was an inconsiderable town of grass huts. However, the visits of ihe 

to the large whaling fleet to re-fit, brought much wealth, 

the seat of Government from Hawaii to Honolulu, the 

r in importance and appearance ; and being in the track 

n America, and China and Australia, affords a convenient 



• See plan of HonolulD barboDT No. 1378. 



CHAP, v.] OAHU. — HONOLULU. 153 

The aspect of the country around Honolulu, as seen from the roads, is 
barren ; and the plain on which the town stands is destitute of verdure. 
This plain extends both east and west from the town, while behind it the 
land rises gradually towards the Nuuanu valley. Several crater-shaped 
hills are in sight, one of which called the Punch Bowl hill or Puowina, 
498 feet in height, lies close to the north-east side of the town. * 

The central part of the town consists of regularly laid-out streets, on 
either side of which stand houses and warehouses constructed after the 
European style, generally painted, and frequently placed within . spacious 
enclosures with gardens ; while the outer portions or suburbs are still 
chiefly composed of grass huts inhabited by the natives. Amongst the 
principal buildings, are the fine and spacious Government houses in which 
all the public offices are enclosed, the king's palace, a fort, two hospitals, 
several churches and chapels belonging to the different religious denomina- 
tions, a custom house, sailors' home, and several schools, some of which for 
the natives are with compulsory education, which system has had the most 
satisfactory results, as the increased knowledge of the inhabitants testifies. 

The place of observation of the Transit of Venus in December 1874, 
(situated 2*7 cables S.E. by E. | E. of the Custom-house lighthouse), is in 
lat. 21° 17' 56" N., long. 157° 51' 50" W. 

A quarantine hospital lias been built on the west side of Honolulu har- 
bour, on ground reclaimed on the coral reef. 

There are also ample wharves, foundries, workshops, and ship-yards, 
which are capable of performing considerable repairs, should the occasion 
arise. 

The population, which at i)ne time was decreasing, is now slowly on the 
increase, and in 1875 numbered about 15,000. 

Being the residence of the King, and the seat of Government, a com- 
missioner and consul-general for England, commissioner and consul for 
France, minister resident for the United States, and consuls for most of 
the naval powers reside here. 

The principal articles of export comprise sugar, coffee (a small quantity), 
hides, wool, oil and whalebone. Imports are wines, spirits, and machinery 
for sugar mills from the United States, and Manchester goods from England. 
Between 1865 and 1873, the total value of the exports fluctuated between 
1,660,000 and 2,360,000 dollars. 

The Eoyal mail line of steamers running between San Francisco and 
Australia, call here once a month each way, remaining in harbour for six 
daylight hours; the line consists of two English and two American 
steamers. There is also a monthly steamer from San Francisco, which 
arrives on the intermediate fortnight, and waits at Honolulu for a week, so 
that the return steamers both leave within a few days of each other. 



164 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [chai-. v. 

Communication betweea the islands is kept up by two or three Bmall, but 
effective steameia. 

The climate of Honolulu is generally very pleasant and heathy, 
eepecially when the N.E. trade wind prevails, but the southerly and south- 
weBterly winds are called by the natives the " sick -winds," because they are 
followed "by small ailments, gastric maladies, and intermittent fevers, as 
IB the case with the scirocco in Europe. 

The following meteorolc^ical observations were taken in 1876: — 



Month. 


Mean Bar. 


Mean Ther. 


Rain Days. PrevaEling Winds. 






Noon. 


Mid. 






January - 


30-23 


73 


70 


16 


N.E. force 8 masimum. 


February - 


30-24 


78 


69 


10 


N.E. „ 3 average. 


March - 


30-19 


7o 


72 


15 


S. „ 3, calm at night 


April 


30-28 


77 


71 


15 


N.E. „ 4, Ught at night 


May - 


30-28 


79 


72 


11 


N.E. „ 4. 


June 


30 25 


80 


73 


5 


N.E. „ 3.. 


July 


30-22 


80 


75 


13 


N.E., calm at night, 


August - 


30- 13 


m 


75 


15 


N.E. 


September 


30-11 


81 


75 


5 


M.E. 21 days, S.E. 9 days. 



The barometer generally falls below 30-00 during southerly winds. 
Supplies of all kinds are plentiful; beef, mutton, fowls, eggs, vege- 
tables, and fruit can be obtaiued at moderate prices, - Water can be pro- 
cured from the shore in a tank ; it is good, but very expensive even in the 
inner anchorage, 2^ dollars a ton, and the additional charge for taking it 
outside the reef is excessive. 

Coal of good quality can be obtained from the European firms in 
Honolulu, Welsh at 17 dollars a ton, and Australian 13 dollai-s a ton (1878). 
Implements and building materials, with the exception of timber, which 
is good and moderate in price, should not be procured in Honolulu, as the 
price of them is excessive. The demand for, and sale of articles required 
for the equipment of ships has so diminished of late through the falling off 
in the whale fishery, that the ti-aders can only exist by charging much 
higher prices. 

Fatont slip. — A patent slip has been constructed by the Grovern- 
— ""* "- the point of land on the east side of the harbour opposite the 
ithouse, as it haa hitherto been found necessary to send all vessels 
; repair to San Francisco, the port of Honolulu being unsuitable 
tions of that kind. This patent slip will answer the purpose of & 
, and may bo described as a sort of cradle or cage in which the 
iclosed, the keel and sides being supported from stem to stem, 
le is so constructed that the weight of the vessel is equally distri- 



CHAP, v.] OAHU. — HONOLULU HAKBOUB. 155 

buted, and that the pressure on the ground is not heavier than that of an 
ordinary locomotive. 

The vessel being thus encased, is lifted out of the water by an engine on 
to an inclined plane, upon which a line of rails has been laid down, and the 
engine is strong enough to raise to the required height a vessel of 1,700 
tons in ballast. Vessels of greater tonnage can be raised high enough to 
admit of their screws being removed, and their hulls cleaned. 

The charges (as in San Francisco) are 50 cents per ton for the first 24 
hours, and 20 cents per ton for lay days. The repairs may be executed 
either by time or by contract, as may be previously agreed. 

Outer AncIlOrage. — Outside the reef and a short distance to the 
eastward of ^he entrance to the harbour, anchorage may be obtained in 
from 15 to 20 fathoms, but the holding ground is not good, as the bottom 
is hard sand and coral and very uneven. Although this anchorage is safe 
during the summer, when the trade wind is steady, it is not advisable to 
use it during the winter, when the winds are variable, and squalls from the 
southward with a heavy sea are not uncommon. 

Honolulu harbour is formed by an opening in the coral reef, 
about 150 yards wide at the entrance, and 300 yards wide off the town, 
and rather more than a mile in length in a north and south direction ; but 
though small it is capable of accommodating a good many vessels by 
mooring them head and stern, the smooth water inside enabling them to 
secure close to one another. 

The bar at the entrance of the harbour has a depth of 21 feet over it at 
low water springs ; but inside, the depth varies from 4 to 6 fathoms. 
Vessels drawing more than 20 feet are not recommended to attempt the 
passage, and with any swell on no vessel drawing more than 18 or 19 feet 
should enter. 

During the visit of H.M.S. Challenger, in 1875, the harbour was said 
to be silting up slightly ; dredging operations had been carried out, and it 
was proposed to dredge to the original depth. 

In 1884, dredging was still being carried on alongside the wharves, the 
mud being utilised to reclaim some waste ground inside a line between 
the patent slip and jetties. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Honolulu at 4h. 25m. ; 
springs rise 2 J to 3 feet. The tidal streams are regular, running 6 hours 
each way, the flood to the westward. 

LIGHTS. — Near the edge of the western reef of the channel leading 
into Honolulu harbour, at a distance of 6 cables from the entrance, a 
wooden lighthouse, painted white, has been erected on piles, from which, 
at an elevation of 26 feet, a fixed white light is exhibited, visible in clear 



156 SANDWICH ISLANDS. Qcuap. v. 

weather from a distance of 9 miles, between the bearings of East, through 
north, and N.W. bj W. 

Near the custom house, on the east side of the harbour, a green light is 
exhibited from a box painted brown, on a white skeleton platform, at an 
elevation of 43 feet above high water, and should be visible in clear weather 
from a distance of 2 or 3 miles. 

These two lights are 2 J cables apart, and when in line bearing N. by E. \ E., 
lead over the bar in 21 feet water, at low water spring tides. 

Buoys and beacons. — ^A buoy marking the outer anchorage off 
Honolulu, painted black and red, with staff and cage, is moored in lo 
fathoms, a quarter of a mile from the shore reef, with the outer lighthouse 
bearing N. by W., and Diamond head, E.S.E. 

The channel into the hai'bour is marked on the eastern side by a spar 
buoy, painted black, at the entrance, and five red can buoys, lying rather 
more than a cable apart, close to tbe edge of the reef. The western side 
is marked by a black barrel buoy moored near the entrance, in 21 feet 
water, opposite the spar buoy, and should be passed on its eastern side' 
and by piles erected on the edge of the reef, the outer pile being abreast 
the third red buoy from the entrance ; the inner pile has a white disc. 
These piles are not to be depended on, as they are sometimes knocked 
down. The outer edge of the reef in front of the lighthouse has been 
marked by a small spar buoy, westward of which vessels should not attempt 
to pass. 

When the mail steamer is expected the buoys in the channel are lighted 
with lanterns. 

Pilots usually board vessels between Diamond head and the outer 
buoy, and it is desirable to accept their services, as, under orders from the 
harbour master they moor vessels, and it is not always open to pick your 
own berth. 

Directions. — in approaching Honolulu from the eastward, tlie 
truncated conical crater of Diamond hill comes prominently into view, and 
is an excellent landmark. Shape a course to pass at least one mile to the 
southward of it, and when it is abeam, steer N.W. by W., when the outer 
buoy will soon appear directly ahead. If intending to anchor outside the 
reef, the best place is in the vicinity of the fairway buoy. 

Vessels approaching Honolulu at night, intending to anchor outside, 
should use the leading lights in line bearing N. by E. \ E., and be most 
attentive to the soundings, obtaining bottom under 40 fathoms, and not 
coming into less than 12 fathoms before anchoring. 

To enter the harbour, keep the lighthouses in line, which will lead 
across the bar in 21 feet at low water springs, until the vessel is at a 
distance of 3 to 2 cables from the reef lighthouse ; then alter course about 



CBAP. v.] OAHU. — ^HONOLULU. — ^WAIKIKI. 157 

a point to the eastward, so as to clear the end of the reef on which the 
lighthouse is built ; thence to the anchorage off the town. 

Vessels in Honolulu harbour not lashed alongside the wharves have to 
moor head and stem, for which purpose anchors are placed at convenient ' 
distances on the reef, on the west side of the harbour. It is advisable to 
moor with the vesseFs head about N.E., as the heavy squalls blow over 
the land from that direction. During the winter months it is often 
necessary to drop an anchor under foot, as the wind frequently shifts to 
the south-west and blows strong, but with sufficient warning to prepare 
for it ; during this season it is advisable, if possible, to select a berth near 
the lighthouse, where there will be room to swing, if it becomes necessary 
to slip the stern chain. 

In 1880, vessels drawing 22 feet could secure alongside the wharf.* 
Vessels leaving Honolulu under sail, either for the northward or east- 
ward, are recommended to shape course about S.W. for 30 miles or more, 
before hauling up to the northward, so as to keep in a belt of wind which 
blows through the paU over Honolulu, and leads into the true trade wind. 
By keeping close inshore, vessels will probably be becalmed for some 
time; merchant vessels trading between Honolulu and San Francisco 
generally leave with yards squared, until they pick up the trade clear of 
the influence of the island. 

Coast. — From the entrance of Honolulu harbour, the coast trends in 
a curve for 4 miles S.£. by £., to Leahi or Diamond head, and is fronted 
by a coral reef, which extends in some places half a mile from the shore. 

Diamond Hill or Leahi is an extinct crater with rugged edges, 
761 feet high, and about half a mile in diameter at its summit, lying 
3^ miles S.£. by £. of Honolulu. It is highest towards the water, then slants 
down and back, and drops suddenly into a low plain that extends back to 
the mountains. 

Signal station.-^ A signal station is situated on a knoll called 
Telegi'aph hill, 292 feet in height, about three-quarters of u mile north of 
Diamond hill, and from it all vessels are signalled to the town as soon as 
sighted. 

"Waikiki is a village lying about a mile north-west of Diamond hill ; 
there is anchorage in front of it, which is occasionally used, but not recom- 
mended, as sailing vessels who are sometimes compelled to bring up there, 
almost always lose their anchors. 

Between Honolulu and Waikiki there is a vast collection of salt-ponds, 
which at one time produced large quantities of salt, but are not worked now, 
and are being filled in. 



♦ Lieutenant E. Fleet, H.M S. Gannet, 1880. 



158 SANDWICH ISLANDS. fcHAP. v. 

Coast. — From Diamond head the land trends away E.N.E. for about 
7 miles, and then turns to the southward to Kawaihoa point, which lies 
E. |. N, 6 miles from Diamond head, and is formed of barren rocky cliffs, 
rising so suddenly from the sea, that to all appearance a vessel might pass 
close to them. The bay between these points is apparently shoal and rocky, 
and the surf breaks violently on the beach, behind which is a lagoon. 

Koko head, 1^ miles N.E. of Kawaihoa point, is rather low towards 
the water, then slopes up and back, depresses, then rises and runs back into 
the mountains. 

From Koko head the coast trends for 3 miles N.E. by N. to Makapun 
point, the eastern extreme of the island. 

KAUAI, the next island of the group, lies 64 miles W. by N. of 
Oahuj and is separated from it by the Kaieie Waho channel. This island 
is of volcanic formation, somewhat circular in shape, 28 miles long, east 
and west, and 23 miles wide, and rises in the centre to a peak about 5,000 
feet in height. 

Kauai was the first island of the group that was visited hy Cook, in 
January, 1778, and he was much struck by the care with which the natives 
managed their plantations. From seaward, the N.E. and N. W. sides aippear 
broken and rugged, but to the south the land is more even, the hills rise 
with a gentle slope from the shore, and at some distance back are covered 
with wood. The highest point of the island is called Waialeale, and it is 
said that there is a crater on the summit, which the natives ascend in clear 
weather to gain a view of Oahu. 

This island is considered one of the most pleasant of the group, and the 
difference of latitude between Kauai and the southern part of Hawaii 
is enough to make a perceptible difference in climate. Portions of Kauai 
appear better adapted to agriculture than the other islands, and the coffee 
and sugar plantations on the weather side, which is well watered with 
streams and frequent rains, are very productive, but the lee side is dry and 
adapted to cultivation only in the valleys. 

Makanuena, the southern point of the island, is a bold, bluff, 
barren, high, rocky headland, falling perpendicularly into the sea, with a 
remarkable dome-shaped mountain a short distance to the north-westward 

of it. 

From here, the coast trends to the N.E. for 7 miles to Kawai point, the 
southern point of Nawiliwili bay. This part of the island is well watered, 
and a heavy sea rolls in on the coast. 

Nawiliwili harbour is a small cove or indentation on the south- 
east side of the island, at the head of Nawiliwili bay, situated between 
Carter and Ninini points, which lie [N.E. ^ E. and S.W. ^ W. of one 
another, 8 cables apart, and affords anchorage in from 6 to 8 fathoms, with 



CHAP, v.] KAUAI. — NAWILIWILI HAKBOUR. 159 

tolerable protection from the trade wind. The harbour is about 7 cables 
deep in an east and west direction, but the greater part of it ia blocked 
by shoals and reefs,* 

There is a la.rge village at Nawiliwili, and the soil in the vicinity is rich, 
producing sugar-cane, taro, beans, sweet potatoes, &c. 

A spit, with from one to 3 £&thoms over it, on which the sea always breaks, 
projects from the south shore near Carter point, in a northerly direction 
for 4 cables, leaving a channel rather more than a cable broad, and having 
a depth of 4 fathoms, called Middle channel, between its extremity and 
!Kuku point on the north shore. This channel leads to the southward 
between the spit and the shore reefs, to an inner harbour in the south- 
west comer of the bay, where there is from 2 to 4 fathoms water. 

A small pier has been built in the north-west comer of the harbour, 
where landing may be easily effected ; but it should be approached with 
caution, as a reef extends from the shore to the southward of it for 2 cables 
in an easterly direction, 

A red buoy for the local mail steamer is moored In 4 fathoms ofTKuku 
point. 

Ninini point, on the north side of Nawiliwili bay, is low, level, 
grassy land, sprinkled with volcanic boulders, which extends from a range 
of low hills that stretch along the coast at a short distance from the beach. 

Wailua. — From Ninini point, the coast trends for 5 J miles N. by W. 
to Wailua, which is situated on a small river of the same name, in a barren, 
sandy spot, though the surrounding district is extremely fertile, and was 
formerly a place of some importance. 

The river, in common with all those along this coast, is closed at the 
mouth with sand-bars, but inside it is deep and navigable for several miles 
by canoes. 

In 1880, a small steamer was observed secured to a buoy off Wailua, 
apparently inside a reef, as breakers Avere observed all around to senward.f 

Coast. — From Wailua the coast turns outwards again for 6 miles 
N. by E. to Kanala point. It appears to be free of outlying dangers, and 
at a distance of a mile from the shore, no soundings could be obtained 
with the hand lead. Sugar cane appears to be cultivated along this coast 
in large quantities, especially in the vicinity of Wailua and Kanala point, 
where there are several sugar factories. 

Kanala point, the north-east extreme of the island, is a low rounded 
point projecting into the sea from a very remarkable forked hill, which is 
nearly detached from the rest of the connected mountains of the island. 



* See plan on sheet, No. 1377. 

f Kaviarating Lieutenant W. W. Turner, H.M.S. Pelican, 18S0. 



160 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [chap. v. 

From Ejinala point, the coast trends roand in a curve, to north and west 
for 14 miles to Hanalei bay, and has several small villages scattered 
along it, near the mouths of mountain streams which are closed by sand- 
bars. The land near the sea is flat and very fertile, but soon rises to the 
mountains behind. The rivers as well as the sea abound in fish, which 
afford a plentiful harvest to the fishermen. 

Hd/nd/lei bay, situated on the north side of Kauai, is semi-circular 
in shape, and lies between two conspicuous bluff, heads which cannot be 
mistaken, and is about a mile wide at the entrance by nearly a mile in 
depth ; but the whole of this area is not anchorage ground, the shores 
being fringed with a reef which, on the east side (opposite the mouth of 
the river, and the bluff noi*thward of it) sends out a spit, over which there 
is about 9 feet of water, with detached heads, to the distance of 3 cables 
from the beach.* 

The bay is easily entered, and tolerably spacious ; but completely ex- 
posed to all winds from north-westward, gales from which quarter must 
send in a very heavy sea ; though some vessels have ridden out the season 
in spite of everything. 

The village or town of Hanalei, is situated near the bottom of the bay, 
and the scene from the anchorage is very picturesque ; the mountains rise 
to a height of from three to four thousand feet, and are clothed with 
verdure from base to summit, with numerous rills coursing down their 
precipitous sides. In front of the town is a good beach where gi*eat 
quantities of fish may be caught with the seine. 

The district derives its name (land of rainbows) from the numerous 
rainbows formed by passing showers, and the rains are so frequent as to 
clothe the country in perpetual green. The climate, as to temperature, is 
about three degrees cooler than on the other side of the island ; the range 
of the thermometei* from January to May, 1841, was from 66° to 82° Far. ; 
sometimes it has been known to fall as low as 52°, and rise as high as 87°. 

On the eastern side of the entrance, is a conspicuous dark, bluff head, 
with two sandy beaches a short distance to the eastward ; this bluff is the 
termination of a large green ridge, which is high inland, and gradually 
slopes to the sea, ending in a bluff point about 60 feet high. This bluff 
head should be given a wide berth, as a reef extends from it for about 

3 cables. 

A short distance to the southward of this bluff, is the mouth of a small 
river, in front of which is a bar which may be crossed by boats at half 
floods and inside the bar carries a depth of from one to three-quarters of a 
fathom, and is navigable for boats drawing 3 feet, for sevei-al miles. 

• See plan on sheet, No. 137*. 



CHAP, v.] KAIFAI. — HAKAIiEI BAY. 161 

Aboat 4 cables from the month of the mer, on the northern bank w a 
large farm, called Charlton farm, owned bj the consnl, who keepa a large 
number of cattle of good breed. 

FrcHn the mouth of the river the bay sweeps round to the westward in a 
curve along a sand beach, for 2^ mOes to Black head, the western point 
of the bay, which is a spur of the high range of mountains running along 
the north-west coast. 

Na Pali«point,'just west of the entrance to the baj, is the termination of 
some high land which slopes suddenly to the sea ; some parts of the slope 
are jagged, forming several needle peaks ; and on the extremity of the 
point there is a small hill, which appears detached when iirst seen on 
approaching the bay from the eastward ; a reef extends about three- 
quarters of a mile from Na Pali point. 

Supplies are plentiful : beef, vegetables, and fruit may be obtained 
in abundance. Water may be procured by sending boats into the river, 
which is easy of access in fine weather, and a short distance from the 
mouth the water is perfectly fresh. 

, Landing is generally effected inside the mouth of the river. 

Ancliorage. — A remarkable conical hill bearing S.S.E will lead to 
the anchorage in Hanalei bay. The depth of 20 fathoms is 1^ miles from 
the shore, and at the entrance to the bay depths of 7 to 9 fathoms will be 
obtained. The anchorage ground in the bay, in fine weather, is spacious, 
but there is only room for about three vessels in bad weather under the lee 
of the reef near the eastern point of the bay. A good berth will be found 
in 7 fathoms with the eastern extreme of the bay N. by E. :J E. ; Black 
head Wl i N. ; Charlton farm N.E. by E. ^ E. 

Coast. — From Hanalei bay the coast trends 4 miles to the westward 
to Haena point, from thence in a general direction S.W. ^ W. 9 miles, and 
then S.S.W. 8J miles to point Mana, the western extremity of the island. 

The north-west coast of Kauai, forming the district of Na Pali, has a 
very rugged and romantic appearance, rising suddenly to lofty abrupt cliffs 
that jut out into a variety of steep, rocky points, destitute of both soil and 
verdure, but terminating nearly in uniform even summits, on which, as 
well as in the valleys or chasms that are formed between them, are small 
patches of green. Here and there a stream, running from the lofty 
mountains behind, finds its way to the ocean. 

Point Mana, the west point of Kauai, is a long, low, sand-spit 
commencing at the foot of a high range of mountains. A reef extends off 
the point for about half a mile, besides which there are some outlying 
rocks. 

Coast. — From point Mana the coast trends S.E. by S. for 4 miles to 
Konole point, and from thence E. ^ S. 5 miles to Waimea, and is fronted 

u 16615. X> 



JG2 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [chap. v. 

by a coral reef extending some distance from the shore. In ISi'G H.M.S. 
JMyrmidon obtained soundings 'in 6 fathoms off Konole point whilst 
running along the coast at a distance of half a mile from the breakers; on 
hauLng out from the shore, the soundings gradually increased. This coast 
is open and exposed, and a heavy surf rolls in on the beach. 

Between point Mana and Waimea the coast consists of a sandy plain, 
from a quarter to one mile wide, and 150 feet above the sea, whence it 
•rises gradually to the mountains. It has a sunburnt appearance, and is 
destitute of trees^ except on the low grounds where the cocoa-nut tree 
thrives and bears abundance of fruit. The sea along this shore abounds in 
^sh. 

Waimea bay, on the S. W. side of Kauai, affords the best anchorage 
ix>und the island, except in the months of January and February, when 
the trade winds are interrupted, and S.W. winds sometimes blow strong 
■directly on shore. 

The village of Waimea derives its name from a river, which after a 
course of about 15 miles falls into the sea at this place. At one time it 
was a populous native town, but is now only a small village of little 
importance. ' Boats may ascend the river for about three quarters of a 
mile, and this is the only water that is not brackish. 

Waimea may be recognised from seaward by Kona peak, which is of a 
reddish appearance and lying to the south-east of the village; and a 
conspicuous church in the village, standing on high ground, a short 
•distance from the beach, and looking very like a sail in the distance. 

On making Waimea from the eastward, the first low point with cocoa- 
nut trees on it is about two miles west of the riyer. 

About a mile west of Waimea is the spot where Cook's boat first landed 
son the discovery of the Sandwich islands. As far as Cook sounded he 
found that the bank has a fine gray sandy bottom, free from rocks, except 
a little to the eastward of the village, where a shoal projects, on which 
Are rocks and breakers, but not far from the shore. 

This anchorage would be entirely sheltered from the trade wind if the 
height of the' land did not alter its direction, and make it follow along 
the coast ; so that it blows from N.E. on one side of the island and 
S.E. or E.S.E. on the other, falling obliquely on the shore, and often 
raising a nasty surf which renders landing at times very unpleasant, and 
sometimes impracticable. 

Waimea bay should be approached with caution, as reefs extend to 
southward and W.S.W. from the centre of ' the bay ; with the church 
bearing North, the soundings when obtained will decrease gradually, 
and with the church bearing N. f E., a good berth will be found in 
10 to 15 fathoms. 



CHAP.T.] KAUAI. — ^WAIMEA BAT. — KALOA BAT. 163 

Ooast. — From Waimea the coast trends for 5^ miles, S.E. by E., to 
Hanapepe, where there is a vallej apparently formed by volcanic action, 
which is about half a mile wide at' the entrance, and decreaseis in width 
as it approaches the mountains, and at its head is a beautiful waterfall, 
ihough the volume of water is not great. 

On the west side of the entrance to the valley is Kona peak ; and in 
front of it a coral reef commences and stretches some distance to seaward 
oiqd then along the coast to the westward. 

Captain King says that in running down to the anchorage off Waimea 
from the south point of the island he saw the appearance of shoal water 
in several places at a considerable distance from the land ; and when 
^bout 2 miles eastward of the anchorage and 2 or 3 miles from shore, 
he got into 4^ fathoms water, although the soundings had been usually 
7 or 8 fathoms. 

From Hanapepe the coast trends East for 7 miles to Kaloa bay ; the 
shore is steep-to and apparently free from off-lying danger.^. 

The whole distance between Waimea and Kaloa consists of a series of 
sunburnt hills and barren plains, sloping gradually to the shore from the 
mountains, and here and there intersected by ravines. There is no culti- 
vation, and the soil only produces a kind of coarse grass quite unfit for 
pasture. 

EalOE bay, about a mile west of the south point of Kauai, is a slight 
indentation of the coast, where there is a considerable village of the same 
name, off which anchorage may be obtained, but in a very exposed 
position. 

The country round Kaloa is much broken by hills and extinct craters ; 
but the soil is good, though dry and very stony, and is capable of cultivation 
in many places. There is a sugar plantation here, and several large cattle 
ranches in the vicinity. Near the beach are two extinct craters. 

The village may be recognised by many high buildings and two churches, 
und extends from the beach to a distance of two miles up the slope of the 
liill ; also by a low point with a sandy patch on its western side, situated 
between the village and Makanuena, the south point. From this low point 
a rocky ledge extends out a short distance, and somewhat protects the 
anchorage. 

There is a good landing-place at Kaloa in a small cove protected by a 
reef extending about a cable from the shore ; an artificial creek has been 
made at the head of this cove, with sufficient space for one boat to enter. 

Supplies of beef, vegetables, and fruit may be obtained in abundance. 

Ancliorage, — A red buoy for the local mail ste^imer is moored in 
10 fathoms off the village, and less water will not be obtained until near 
the buoy, when a berth will be found in about Jl fathoms, sand and shells, 

L 2 



164 SANDWICH ISLANDS. [chap. v. 

with the western 6hui:^h bearing N. } B.; the low point E, J N. ; dome- 
shaped mountain N.E. 

It may be observed that from a position about a mile south of Miakanuena, 
the most western point in view will be observed to have a black lava wail 
crossing it from east to west, and that the anchorage off Kaloa is about 
half a mile west of this point. This part of the coast appears to be fringed 
bj a rocky ledge, but may be safely passed at a mile distant. 

NIIHAU lies 17 mile's W.S.W. of Kauai, from which it is separated 
by the Kumukahi channel^ and is about 16 miles in length N.E.'t)y N. and 
S.W. by S. and 6 miles broad. 

This island is mostly low land except on the eastern side, where it rises 
directly from the sea to a height of 1,500 feet, and is rocky and unfit for 
cultivation. On the western side is a level plain from 2 to 4 miles in 
width, where the natives cultivate yams, fruits, sweet-potatocfs, &c. The 
soil beiog dry, the yams grow to a great size and are of very good quality. 
The natives are few in number and very poor, and live almost entirel;^^ on 
the western side of the island. Of late vears Niihau has been used as a 
sheep-walk, and in 1875 there was said to be about 70,000 sheep on the 
island. 

The eastern side of Niihau is rocky and wholly destitute of shelter or 
anchorage; but on the western side there are several open roadsteads 
where anchorage may be obtained, though very exposed. 

Co&St. — Cape Kawaihoa, the south-east point of the island, terminates 
in a round hill. From here the coast trends in a bight for 8 miles 
N.E. by N. to Pueo point, near the middle of the east side, over which 
rises the highest point of the island. From Pueo point the coast continues 
to the northward for 6 miles to Oku point, the north-east extremity. 

Lenua or Egg island, off the north point of Klihau, is a small, 
rugged, barren rock, apparently destitute of soil, and without any sign of 
habitation. It is separated from Niihau by a channel about a mile wide, 
in which the depth appeared irregular and therefore not recommended to 
be used. 

Coast. — From the north point of Niihau the west coast runs in a 
general direction, S.W., for 12 miles to Kona point, which is a long low 
sandy point, having a rock 10 feet above water near it, and a reef which 
extends a short distance outside the rock. Off the point, breakers extend 
for nearly 1^ miles. 

ITam bay is hut an open roadstead about 1^ miles south of Kona. 
point, where anchorage may be obtained in fine weather or with easterly 
winds. The soundings are regular, with a sandy bottom. 

There is but one place in the bay where boats can effect landing with 
safety when the sea sets in^ which is a common occurrence ; this is on the 



CHAP, v.] NIIHAU. — cook's ANCHOBA«h£. 165 

northern side, behind a small reef of rocks that He^^a VttlQ way off the 
beach, and even here it is necessary to guard against sunken fopks. 

Vancouver anchored here in 18 fathoms, with £ona point bearing 
KN.W. i W. distant Ij miles. 

Cook's anchorage, on the south-west side of Niihauy is about. 
4 miles south of Kona point, and is exposed to the heavy north-westerly 
swell which frequently sets in, and breaks some distance from the shore ; 
the bottom is composed of large rocks, with patches of sand in some places. 
Near the beach are a few huts, a church, and a derrick for loading and 
unloading boats. 

Landing. — The landing-place is protected by some rocks forming a 
breakwater in the north-east part of the bay, and is situated just inside a 
lava patch, which from seaward appears like a point ; landing can be 
effected easily in moderate weather, but with a heavy swell it is imprac- 
ticable. 

Supplies, — Whalers call here occasionally for fresh meat, but, the 
sheep being bred for wool only, very little meat can be procured, and 
only a limited quantity of vegetables or fruit is to be obtained. 

Fresh water can only be procured during the rainy season, when the 
watercourses are full ; at other times of the year there is no water but 
what the natives have collected in wells in the rock for their own use, 
and these are chiefly near the south end of the island* 

Directions. — Vessels bound to Cook's anchorage from the north- 
eastward are recommended to pass north of Lenua island, and keep along 
the western shore of Niihau, as the trade wind blows more from the 
northward on this side of the island. 

Lenua island may be rounded within half a mile, and the western shore 
of Niihau, which appears tolerably bold, may be passed at a distance of 
about 2 miles. The reef which extends off Kona point should not be 
approached nearer than three-quarters of a mile, when probably soundings 
will be obtained in 13 to 15 fathoms, deepening again to no bottom at 20 
fathoms. When the huts at the landing-place at Cook's anchorage bear 
E. by N., they may be steered for, the soundings decreasing gradually to 
12 and 9 fathoms.* 

Anchorage. — In 1875, H.M.S. Peterel anchored in 9 fathoms, sand 
and rock, with Kaula island bearing S. W. ; extreme of reef off Kona point 
N. I E. ; church N.E. by E. j E. 

Cantion. — As the rollers set in with but little warning at Cook's 
anchorage, sailing vessels should proceed to sea on the first indications of 
them. On these occasions, the fishermen who go out for only a few hours 



Nayigatmg Lieutenant N. Child, H.M.S. Peterel, 1875. 



Niihfiu, is a Email elevated barren rock, destitute of vegetation and un- 
inhabited. It ia visit«d by the natives to collect the e^s of the sea-birds 
wlticb abound hei'e. Landing can oalj be effected in the calmest weather, as 
tbc surf breaks heavily on the shore at all times. 

BIRD ISLAND, in lat. 23° 3' N., long. 161° 45' W., was dis- 
covered on 13ih April 1789 by Captain Douglas of the IpMgenia, and iy 
situated 106 miles N.W. by W. ^ W. of Niihau. 

It is A barren island 880 feet high, tbi'ee-qusrters of a mile long and 
one-tbit'd of a mile broad. The nortb side is a precipice, but on the south 
siile thure is a small bay, \vith a boulder beach about 200 feet in extent, 
where Sanding has been effected in the summer. The island is bold all 
round, and the resort of numerous sea-birds, which led to the belief that 
guano might esist ; but from the formation of tbe rock and the 
large amount of heavy rain that falls in the vicinity, it is not possible for- 
any quantity to accumulate. 

Anchorage lias been reported off the south side in from 7 to 17 fathoms, 
tlt ir^'m one quarter to 2 miles from the island, 

ISLANDS, ROCKS, AND SHOALS. 

Tbe following islands, roeka, and shoals extend in. a long line W. by N_ 
of the Sandwich islands for o distance of 1,350 miles and more. Tbey 
haie seldom been visited, and therefore there may be many dangers yet 
undiscovered.* 

JOHNSTON ISLAND was discovered in 1807 by H.M.S. 
Coritwallu, and examined in 1859 by Lieutenant 3. M. Brooke of the U.S. ' 
schooner Fenimore Cooper. He landed and obtained good observations, 
■which place a flagstaff on the western islet in lat. 16° 44' 48" N., long. 
169^ 30' W. It is described as being a lagoon island, the reef being 



CHAP, v.] JOHNSTON ISLAND. — ^NSCKEB ISLAND. 16T 

of a quadrilateral form S\ miles in a N. bj E. and S. by W. direction and 
3^ miles W.N.W. and E.S.E. On the reef are situated two islets, the 
larger being half a mile long E.N.E. and W.S.W., the smaller, a mere sand- 
bank, about a quarter of a mile in diameter. Breakers extend to the 
northward nearly 1^ miles, and a bank surrounds the reef, extending in a 
south-easterly direction 5 or 6 miles, with 10 to 20 fathoms. 

There is anchorage about tly^e quarters of a mile S.S.E. from the flag- 
staff on the large islet. The sea in the vicinity abounds with fish of a 
superior quality, and birds are extremely numerous. 

sen JETMAN REEF.— Captain Schjetman of the Norwegian 
ship Afifia reported that on October 19th, 1868, he passed a coral reef at a 
distance of half a mile in lat. 16° 8' N,, long. 178° 58' W., which appearecJ- 
about 1 ^ miles long north and south, and about half a mile wide. 

In 1880 it was not seen in this position by the U.S.S. Alert 

KRUSENSTEBN BOCK, discovered by Captain lisiansky and 
pbced in lat. 22° 15' N., long. 175° 37' W., is stated to have a bank 
around it, stretching north and south about 2 miles, on which the sea. 
broke in one place. The above position is considered to be doubtful. 

NECKER ISLAND, in lat. 23° 36' N., long. 164° 39' W., was 
discovered by La Perouse in 1786. It is a small rocky island about 7 cables 
long W. by N". and E. by S., and 2 cables broad, with a peak near each end, 
the western 280, and the eastern 250 feet in height. There are no trees 
on the island, but some grass grows on the summit, and the rock beings 
covered with a deposit of guano gives it a white appearance. 

From a distance of less than a mile, the sides of the island appear . as^ 
perpendicular as walls, against which the sea breaks violently and prevents 
the possibility of landing, except near the S.E. point, where there is a. 
watercourse, and a small ledge of rocks extending about 2 cables to sea- 
ward, affording landing in moderate weather. On the north side there is 
a small islet, about 100 feet from the main island, and connected to it by 
a reef ; there is also a small detached rock close to the east end. 

Necker island is surrounded by a bank or shoal which extends to the 
southward for a distance of 24 miles, and having upon it depths varying 
from 14 fathoms and upwards.' Captain Brooks, in the Gambia, crossed it 
in lat. 23° 12' N., and found the bank about 15 miles wide ; the western- 
edge is very abrupt, the soundings varying from deep sea to 14 fathoms,, 
sloping gradually to 35 fathoms at the eastern edge ; the discoloration of 
the water may be seen at a distance of 3 miles from the masthead.- Hitherto 
no dangers have been discovered on the bank, beyond the rocks in tlie 
vicinity of the island, but, owing to its great extent, there miay be heads oi- 
pinnacles not yet known. 



168 ISLANDS, aOOKS, AND SHOALS. [chap. v. 

At about. 2 miles S.W. of the island there are depths of 15 to 18 
fathoms, coral and broken shells, gradually decreasing to the westward, 
where at 10 miles from the island no bottom was obtained with 135 
fathoms of line. 

On passing over the bank, great quantities of fish of excellent quality 
may be caught with lines. 

According to Captain Brooks, the best anchorage is on the north-west 
side of the island. 

FRENCH FRIGATE SHOAL, lying 90 miles west of Necker 
island, was discovered by La Ferouse in 1786, the day after leaving 
Necker island. This dangerous and extensive shoal is a crescent-shaped 
atoll, on which are 16 islets or sandbanks and one principal island ; the 
points of the crescent are N.W. and S.S.E. from the principal island, and 
about 16 miles apart. 

The island, in lat. 23° 47' N., long. 166° 15' W., is 180 feet long, 45 feet 
wide, and 125 feet high, rising to a ridge in the centre, and so steep and 
rugged as to be almost inaccessible ; it may be seen from a distance of 
about 8 miles and resembles a ship under sail, and from it the largest 
sandbank bears E.N.E. 4 miles. 

This island was reported to have extensive deposits of guano, whicH led 
to its being visited by Captain Brooks of the Gambia in 1859, but, finding 
none there, he left a party of twenty men on the island while he proceeded 
to explore the islands to the westward ; during the ^summer months these 
men subsisted very comfortably on fish, turtle, fowls, and eggs, and 
water was obtained by digging a well on the largest sandbank about 600 
yards from the beach, and 8 to 10 feet deep ; the water was somewhat 
brackish, but found to answer the purpose very well. These men collected 
a considerable quantity of seal skins, seal oil, sharks' fins, &c. 

This shoal is generally avoided^ as several wrecks have occurred on the 
reef. 

Vessels of any size can approach the island within a cable's length, and 
may anchor anywhere inside the reef in from 3 to 14 fisithoms. The 
bottom is composed of coral patches and sand. 

Entering from the south side, the central island bearing N. by W. \ W, 
will lead dear of all dangers, and when up to tlie island, on the western 
side, a N.W. ^ W. course leads clear past the N.W- horn : proceeding across 
the shoal from south to north, the soundings vary between 12 and 17 
fathoms, and the bottom from broken shells, sand and coral, to rock, sand 
and coral. 

There is no danger outside the line of breakers ; and the current was 
observed to be running to the S.W, at the rate of about 2 knots per 
hour. 



OHAF. yO PRENCH PBIGATE shoal. — ^LAYSAN ISLAND. 169 

BROOKS SHOAL.— In 1859, Captain Brooks, after running 
30 miles W.N.W. from French Frigate ahoal, crossed a bank with 14 
fathoms over it, and saw the bottom distkictly. This places the shotd in 
lat. 23° 52' N., long. 166° 57' W. 

GARDNER ISLAND, in lat. 25° V N., long. 167° 69' W., was 
discovered by Captain Allen of the whaler Maro in 1820. It is an 
inaccessible rock about 180 feet high and 200 yards in diameter, with a 
smaller rock close to the S.W. extremity, from which a reef extends about 
half a mile. 

A bank, with from 17 to 20 fathoms water, surrounds the rock, extending 
westward about 5 miles, and S.W. more than 8 miles. 

MARO REEF, the centre of which is in lat. 25° 27' N., 
long. 170° 30' W., was discovered by Captain Allen of the whaler Maro in 
1820, and is a dangerous shoal about 30 miles in circumference, consisting 
of small detached patches of coral and sand, which are covered with 
breakers, the heaviest being near the N.W. end. 

At times the breakers are very light, being scarcely distinguishable from 
sea caps, so that great caution is necessary when approaching it ; in clear 
weather it may be seen from aloft from a distance of 5 miles. 

The reef is nearly surrounded by a bank on which are soundings of from 
10 to 30 fathoms, extending from 2 to 7 miles and deepening gradually 
from the reef. 

The reef is open to the westward, where there is good anchorage. 

DOWSETT REEF.— On 4th July 1872, the whaling brig 
Kamehameha struck on a reef about 13 miles south of the Maro reef, the 
centre of which the master places in lat. 25° 13' N., long. 170° 38' W. 

It extends N.W. and S.E. about 8 miles, and is about 4 miles broad ; in 
some parts the reef is awash and the sea breaks all over it* 

LAYSAN ISLAND, in lat. 25° 45' N., long. I7r 50^ W., is a 
small low island covered with shrubs, about 2 miles long and 1 \ miles 
wide, 20 feet high, and enclosing a lagoon a mile or more across. 

The island is snrvonnded by a reef which extends for about half a mile, 
outside of which is a bank 5 miles wide, with from 14 to 19 fathoms over 
it. Inside the reef is a boat passage nearly all round the island. 

It is reported that no dangers exist beyond the line of breakers. Boats 
may effect landing in safety anywhere except on the south and south-east 
sides. Good anchorage may be obtained on the west side ; the best, how- 
ever, is about half a mile from the S.W. point in from 8 to 12 fathoms, 
coral bottom. 

In 1859, there were five palm trees on the island, about 15 feet in height. 
Water of tolerable quality may be obtained by digging to a depth of 



170 ISLANDS, ROCKS, AND SHOALS. [chap. v. 

two feet. The island abounds in sea-fowl, and eggs of many kinds are 
abundant* Seal, turtle, and fish are numerous, and easily taken. 

LISIANSEY. ISLAND, lying 113 miles W. i S. of Laysan 
island, was discovered by Captain Lisiansky of the Bussian ship Neva 
in 1B05. It is a small low coral island overgrown with grass, about 
6 miles in circumference and 40 feet in height ; the centre is in lat. 26° 0' N., 
long. 173° 57' W. 

The island is encircled by a reef which, on the west side, forms a lagoon 
2\ miles wide, in which there is a good anchorage in from 4 to 12 fathoms ; 
the entrance to the lagoon is marked by two heavy breakers, bearing north 
and south from one another, three-quarters of a mile apart and about 
2 miles from the island ; between these two breakers are several small 
rocks nearly awash, which may be avoided by steering from aloft ; inside 
the lagoon are a number of scattered rocks, but as the water is smooth 
they are easily avoided. 

The approach should be made from the north, as a low and dangerous 
reef extends to the southward for nearly 7 miles, and in moderate weather 
the breakers on it can scarcely be distinguished from sea-caps. A reef 
extends for 1^ miles to the E.S.E., on which the Neva struck. 

Near the south end of the island is the basin of what was once a lagoon, 
but is now overrun with weeds, &c. A plentiful supply of water may 
be obtained by digging a few feet. Birds, fish, seal and turtle abound. 

PEARL AND HERMES REEF, lying 145 miles N.W. f W. 

of Lisiansky island, is an extensive coral reef about 42 miles in circum- 
ference, 16 miles long east and west, and 9 miles wide, on which are 
scattered twelve small low islands and islets, forming a crescent which is 
open to the W.N.W. 

This reef, the centre of which is in lat. 27^ 52' N., long. 175° 53' W., 
•was discovered in 1822 by two whalers, the Pearl and the Hermes^ which 
were wrecked near the eastern end on the same night, within 10 miles of 
each other. 

Inside the lagoon, the only entrance to which is on the N.W. side, there 
is anchorage in from 3 to 15 fathoms, but the islands cannot be approached 
within 2 miles. 

The largest island is 2^ miles in length, covered with grass and low 
trees, and lies E. by S. i S. from the entrance. 

There is anchorage outside the reef in from 8 to 12 fathoms, but the 
best is on the N.W. side near the entrance. The reef is steep-to on the 
east side, the 100 fathom line being within 1^ cables of the reef; but on 
the west side the water runs off shoal for a considerable distance to 
35 fathoms, thence it deepens very suddenly. There are no known dangers 
outside the breakers. 



CHAP, v.] PEARL AND HEBMES EEEF. — ^MIDWAY ISLANDS. I7l 

Seal and turtle are abundant, and quantities of excellent fish maj be 
obtained. 

GAMBIA BANK was discovered by Captain Brooks of the Gambia 
in 1859, who stated it to lie about 30 miles W. by N. of Pearl and Hermes 
reef, ^th 14 fathoms water over it, and bottom distinctly seen : this places 
it in lat. 27° 50' N., long. 176° 30' W. 

MIDWAY ISLANDS, lying 77 miles W. ^ N. of Pearl and 
Hermes reef, were discovered by Capt. Brooks of the Gambia in 1859, who 
took possession of them for the United States, and they have since been 
utilized by the Pacific Mail Company, who intended to form a depot here 
for their trans-Pacific steamers, instead of using Honolulu.* 

This atoll, on which are two small islands, was examined and surveyed 
by Captain W. Reynolds, U.S.S. LackawannOy in 1867, from whom the 
following information has been derived. 

The reef encircling Midway islands is pear-shaped, with its stem part to 
the eastward ; it is 18 miles in circumference and without a break, except 
on the western side. At the north-west point is a small patch of breakers, 
a few detached rocks, and then commences a compact coral wall, about 
5 feet high, and from 6 to 20 feet wide, which continues for 4^ miles to 
the southward and eastward, when it loses its uniformity of surface and 
presents a line of detached rocks very little more than awash, for 2^ miles 
to the southward ; there, off the centre of the eastern island, the rocks dip 
under water, but re-appear 2 miles to the westward, from whence they 
again show as a continuous wall for about 4 J miles to the westward and 
northward, ending there and forming the south side of the entrance to 
Welles harbour. 

This entrance is about three quarters of a mile broad, and Irom its 
noilhem side to the north-west rocks there is a bed of coral with from one 
to 16 fathoms, showing above water in one place, with occasional breakers. 

The northern, eastern, and southern portions of the reef are sleep- to, to 
the rocks. The bottom is visible in two places only, near the north-east 
and south-east points, where the soundings are shown on the chart. 

Eastern islEnd is at the eastern extremity of the reef, IJ miles in 
length and half a mile wide, from 6 to 15 feet high, and covered with coarse 
grass and small shrubs ; the beach of coral sand is of dazzling whiteness. 

Sand island, li miles west of the eastern island, is 1^ miles long, 
three quarters of a mile wide, and 57 feet high, on the summit of which a 
flagstaff has been erected. There is very little vegetation on this island, 
and the glare from the sand is very trying to the eyes. The agent for the 



♦ See plan on sheet No. 2,169. 



172 ISLANDS, BOCKS, AND SHOAXS. * [cbaiv ▼* 



Pacific Mail Comptaij lives on this island, as being more catrvetasatlj 

the harbour. 

The observation spot near the south-west end of the IslaBd is in 
lat. 28° 12' 22" N., long. 177° 22' 20" W. 

Sftndspit. — ^Near the north-west point is a sandspit which varies in 
size considerablj from time to time, sometimes almost disappearing. 

Welles h&rbOlir is formed by a gap in the coral ree^ and is roomj 
and safe ; with the entrance open to the westward, and 1^ cables wide 
where most contracted.* 

The bar, which is well within the entrance^ and on which there is no 
swell during the trade winds, is narrow, and has an uneven bottom of coral 
rock and small sand-holes ; its depth varies from 16 to 21 feet, but changes 
so often and suddenly as to make it unsafe to count on crossing without 
getting a cast of 18 feet. Inside the bar, the depth for anchoring is from 
5 to 7 fathoms, white sand. The harbour is therefore only fit for vessels 
drawing less than 18 feet; vessels of deeper draught must He in Seward 
road, picking out a sandy bottom to anchor on. 

The lagoon near the centre of the reef is 2 miles long and 1^ miles wide, 
with many coral heads in it, with from one to 2 fathoms water over them. 

Welles harbour is separated from the lagoon by shoal water, a mile in 
breadth, and as far as could be ascertained there is no passage for ships. 
It might be possible for a light draught vessel to get into the lagoon by 
passing to the northward of the middle ground, and threading her way in 
among the rocks ; but no regular ship channel exists. 

Tides. — ^^ is high" water, full and change, at 3 hrs. 28 m. Springs rise 
1^ feet, neaps one foot. The tides are regular, and at the outer anchorage 
the flood sets to the northward and the ebb to the southward, firom one to 2 
knots. In Welles harbour the current always runs out to the westward, 
but not with much strength. 

Wind and weather, — in July, 1 867 the trade wind blew strong, 
with clear weather ; during August of the same year the weather was 
generally fine and clear, with light winds from N.N.E. to S.S.E. ; rain fell 
on 6 days, usually at night and but seldom accompanied by wind ; the 
thermometer ranged from 72° to 89°, and the barometer from 29*92 to 

30-25. 

Anchorage. — On the west side, sheltered anchorage during the 
trade winds may be obtained in from 10 to 13 fathoms, but on a very foul 
bottom. The best outside anchorage is in Seward road in 10 to 13 fathoms 
at the entrance to Welles harbour. 

Tiie coral ridge which extends from the north-west end of the reef to 
the southern wall gives very irregular soundings, having deep fissures 






See plan on sheet No. 2169. 






otmp.y;] MIBH^AYiaLANDS.— ocean XSLAJO). 173 

between the ixx^ks, and a^n spaces of sandy bottom ; tbe Lackawanna 
IcBt both her anchors here. 

DirOCtionS.-^Steam vessels, in approaching Midway islands from 
the eastward, should make the eastern island, and pass round the southern 
side* to the anchorage in Seward road. If coming from the westward, 
Sand island should be made. 

Sailing vessels from the eastward, during the trade season, should keep 
to the northward of the reef, and pass round the north-west rocks, so as to 
retain a fair wind to the anchorage. 

Square-rigged vessels must warp into the harbour with easterly winds. 

Supplies. — Fish of many varieties are plentiful, and by hauling the 
seine enough may be caught to supply the ship's company. Seal and 
turtle abound. A few curlew and plover are the only land-birds on the 
islands. 

AVater may be procured on both islands by digging from 4 to 7 feet, and, 
though at first full of impurities, yet, by filtration and allowing it to stand, 
it becomes drinkable. 

Cnil£ or OCEAN ISLAND, lying 66 miles West of Midway 
islands, which it closely resembles both in formation and appearance, 
consists of an island 1^ miles long, and three quarters of a mile wide, and 
two small islets or sandbanks, surrounded by a reef, somewhat oval in 
shape, which encloses a lagoon, the entrance of which is to the south-west- 
ward, about a mile in width and very shallow. 

The reef is 14 J miles in circumference and no outlying dangers have 
been observed. 

Green island, in the S.E. comer of the lagoon, is covered with small 
shrubs, about 20 feet high, and similar to the eastern of the Midway 
islands. To the westward of it are two small islets or sandbanks, 
the western of which is about 10 feet high, in lat. 28° 25' N., long. 
178° 27' W. 

A bank extends round the reef to about a mile, with 20 to 30 fathoms 
water over it. The best anchorage is on the west side, near the N.W. 
point of breakers, in from 8 to 12 fathoms, rocky bottom. From the 
appearance of the islands they are sometimes visited by severe storms, the 
sand being thrown into numerous cones and pyramids. 

PATROCINIO or BYEB ISLAND was discovered by 
Morrell in 1825, who placed it in lat. 28° 32' N., long. 177° 4' E. 

This island, about 4 miles in circumference, is of volcanic origin, of 
moderate height, and has some shrubs and smaller vegetation on it. 

The only danger is on the S.E. side, where a coral reef stretches 2 miles 
to the southward. There is good anchorage on the W.S.W. side in 15 
fathoms, sand and coral. 




175 



TABLE OF POSITIONS. 



Place. 



Particular Spot. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Tahiti - 

Miirea- 
Huaheino 

Kaiatea 



SOCIETY ISLANDS. 



Venus point. Observation 

place. 
Cook bay, Nuupure point 
Owharre harbour, King's 

house. 
Regent point 



// 



17 29 14 S. 

17 28 42 „ 
16 42 31 „ 



16 43 44 



» 



o / // 

149 29 OW. 

149 49 15 „ 

151 1 SO 



151 26 



9> 



99 



Easter island - 



Cook bay, Observation j 27 10 „ I 109 26 „ 
place. I 



Pitcaim island 
Gambler islands 
Hao island 



PAUMOTU ARCHIPELAGO. 



Adamstown 


25 


3 


30 „ 


130 


8 30 „ 


Manga Reva, Flagstaff - 


23 


7 


34 „ 


135 


20 „ 


Moral on east point of 


18 


3 


38 „ 


140 


59 15 „ 


entrance. 













MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 



Fatu-hiva 

Hiva-oa 
Ua-pu - 

Ua-huka 
Nuku-hiva 

Caroline island 
Christmas island 

Fanning island 
Palmyra island 



Hawaii 



» 



Maui - 

Oahu - 
Eauai - 



Midway islands 



Hana-vave bay, Observa- 


10 


27 


6 „ 


138 


39 


5 „ 


tion place. 














Taa-hu-ku, Mission station 


9 


47 


32 „ 


139 


2 


30 „ 


Vaieo bay, Observation 


9 


23 


^ ,, 


140 


5 


55 „ 


point. 






. 


, 






Hannay bay, Motu Haane 


8 


56 


„ 


139 


32 


„ 


Anna Maria bay, Flagstaff 


8 


55 


15 „ 


140 


4 


50 „ 


South island, Flagstaff - 


10 





1S.| 150 


14 


SO „ 


Cook island, Observation 


1 


57 


17 N. 


157 


27 


45 „ 


spot. 














English harbour. Flagstaff 


3 


51 


26 „ 


159 


22 


„ 


Observation spot near 


5 


49 


4 „ 


162 


11 


30 „ 


I S.W. islet. 














SANDWICH ISLANDS. 




•V 






Hilo bay. Cocoa-nut islet 19 


43 


51 „ 155 


5 


15 „ 


Kealakekua bay, Cook's 


19 


29 


„ 


156 


2 


40 „ 


monimient. 






■ 








Kahului harbour, Hobron*s 


20 


54 


r5 „ 


156 


27 


50 „ 


flagstaff. 






" 








Honolulu, King's Cottage 


21 


18 


„ 


157 


15 


53 „ 


Nawiliwili bay, Observa- 


21 


57 


60 „ 


159 


27 


20 „ 


tion spot. 














Sand island, S.W. point - 


28 


12 


22 N. 


177 


22 


20 W. 



176 



TIDE TABLES. 



Place. 


High wilier 

at full and 

change. 


Rise. 


Remarks. 


Springs. 


Neaps. 


Bapa island . » . 


h. m. 
12 15 


ft. 


ft. 





Papiete, Tahiti 



SOCIETY ISLANDS. 
I noon I 1| I 



Easter island 
Sala-y-Gomez 



39 
4 



6? 
4? 



PATJMOTU ARCHIPELAGO. 



Man^ Beva 

Hao island - - - 

Makemo or Philip island 



1 50 


3 


2 40 


3 


3 





MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 



Fatu-hiva - 
Tau-ata 
Hiva-oa 
Nuku-hiva - 



Caroline island 
Penrhyn island 
Christmas island 
Fanning island 
Palmyra island 



3 50 


H 


2 30 


4 


3 50 


3 


3 50 


H 


4 


n 


6 0? 


i| 


4 23 


3 


6 


2i 


5 23 


2 



1 

2 



li 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



Hawaii, Hilo bay 

„ Kealakekua bay 
Maui, Kahuloi harbour 

„ Makena 
Oahu, Honolulu - 
Eauai, Nawiliwili 



Midway islands - 



1 


3 


3 49 


2? 


11 40 


3-4 


1 0? 


5? 


4 25 


2|-3 

2|-3 


3 45 


3 28 


H 



INDEX. 





Page 








Page 


Aa-tiia-tua bay 


- 108 


Arahuhu point 


- 


- 


- 39 


ActflRon group 


- 71 


Araktcheff island 


- 


- 


- 79 


Adam and Eve point 


- 107 


Aratika island 


- 


. 


- 84 


Adams island 


- 101 


Archangel island 


- 


- 


- 73 




- 67 


Area village 


- 


- 


8 


Adamstowu - - - 


- 66 


Artemise bank 


- 


- 


- 48 


Adventare island 


81 


Arutua island 


- 


- 


- 86 


Aga-kauitai island - 


- 68 


Arutunga mission station 


- 


- 17 


Ahii island - ^- 


- 87 


Ataiti, port - 


- 


- 


- 37 


Ahunui island 


- 76 


Atanui bay - 


- 


- 


9 


Ahurei harbour 


8 


Atifareura entrance 


k 

* 


- 


- 88 


village 


8 


Atiheu bay - 


- 


- 


- 108 


Aifa pass - - - 


36 


Atimaro village 


- 


- 


- 87 


Aitutaki island 


- 17 


Atiu island - 


- 


- 


- 16 


Akamanue bay 


9 


Atupa-atua point 


- 


- 


- 107 


Aka-Maru island 


- 68 


Auau channel 


- 


- 


- 145 


Akaoto bay - 


- 101 


Aa-Kena island 


- 


- 


- 68 


Akatau bay - - - 


- 101 


Auotu island 


- 


.■ 


17 


Akiaki island 


- 75 


Aura island • 


. 


- 


- 85 


Alalakeiki channel - 


" 144 


Aurora island 


- 


. 


- 89 


Alau islet - 


- 140 


Austral islands 


- 


- 


10-13 


Alenuihaha channel - 


- 138 


Ava-ino pass 


- 


. 


- 40 


Amanu island 


- 77 


Ava-iti pass 


- 


- 


35,40 


Anaa island - 


- 82 


Avaroa pass - 


- 


— 


- 49 


Anaho bay - 


- 108 


Avarua village 


- 


- 


14 


Anakena bay 


- 60 


Avatora entrance 


- 


- 


- 87 


Anarua bay 


9 










Anataari bay 


9 








' 


Anatauri bay 


9 








t 


Aneau bay - 


- 102 


Balguerie, cape 


- 


- 


- 97 


Angairao bay 


9 


Barclay island 


« 


- 


- 80 


Angatau island 


- 79 


Barber point 


- 


- 


- 161 


Anna Maria bay 


'• 106 


Barrow island 


- 


- 


- 73 


Anu-Anuraro island 


- 73 


Bass islands - 


- 


- 


7 


Ann- Anurunga island 


- 73 


Battery cove 


- 


- 


- Ill 


Aorai peak - - - 


- 31 


Bedford island 


- 


- 


- 71 


Apataki island 


- 85 


Belcher island 


- 


- 


- 68 


Apateki bay 


- 101 


Bellingshausen island 


- 


. 57 


Arahiri point 


28 


Bird island - 


- 


- 


78, 121, 166 


u 16615. 










M 







INDEX. 








i7y 






Page 










Page 


Elizabeth island 


- 


64,84 


Haavini valley 


m 


- 


- 


43 


Elson island 


- 


- 68 


Haena point - 


•• 




- 


161 


English harbonr 


- 


- 119 


Hagemeister island 


- 


• 


- 


85 


Ewa plain - 


- 


- 152 


Haiku 


- 


- 


- 


141 








Hakaehau bay 


- 


- 


- 


109 








Hakahau bay 


- 


- 


- 


102 


Faa channel - 


. 


. 32 


Hakahe-tau bay 


- 


- 


- 


101 


— Tillage - 


» m 


- 82 


Hakamaii bay 


- 


- 


- 


101 


Faaite island 


» • 


- 82 


Hakamui bay 


- 


- 


- 


102 


Faam point - 


. 


- 47 


Hakapa bay - 


m 


- 


- 


109 


Faarumai pass 


- 


- 48 


Halai hill - 


- 


• 


m 


131 


valley 


. 


- 47 


Halley, fort - 


- 


- 


- 


95 


Faatautia village 


. 


- 46 


Hana harbour 


- 


- 


- 


140 


Faiere, monnt 


J • 


. 29 


Hana-hepu bay 


- 


- 


- 


98 


Fakaina island 


- 


- 79 


Hana-iapa bay 


m 


W\ 


- 


98 


Fakarava island 


• 


- 82 


Hanake island 


- 


- 


- 


99 


Fakatopatere village 


. 86 


Hanalei bay - 


- 


- 


- 


160 


Fana or Art^misebank 


- 48 


Hanamanioa, cape 


- 


- 


- 


139 


Fangataufa island 


- 


- 71 ' 


Hana-menu bay 


- 


- 


- 


99 


Fanning island 


- 


- 118 


Hanamiai village 


- 


- 


- 


95 


Faone pass - 


• 


- 45 


Hana-paa-owa bay 


- 


- 


- 


98 






44 


Hanapepe - 
Hana-te-kor bay 


. 


^ 


_ 


163 


Faraari point . 


. 


- 42 


- 


- 


- 


98 


Fare Mahora point 


. 


- 39 


Hana-vave or Virgins bay 


- 


m 


94 


Fareara point 


. 


- 89 


Hanga Haa cove 


- 


-■ 


- 


105 


Farei hill - 


- 


. 38 


HangaFiko- 


«• 


-- 


- 


61 


Faretua, mount 


«■ ^ 


- 40 


Boa - 


- 


- 


« 


60 


Fareute point 


- 


. 29 


Hannay bay- 


m 


- 


- 


104 


Fari village - 


- 


. 52 


Uao island - 


- 


- 


- 


76 


Fatu-Fatu islet 


. 


- 54 


Hapapani bay 


- 


- 


- 


109 


Fatu-hiva island 


. 


- 92 


Hapatoni bay 


- 


- 


- 


96 


Fatu-huku island 


• . 


- 100 


Happaa valley 


• 


- 


- 


105 


Fenua iti island 


• 


17 


Haraiki island 


- 


- 


- 


78 


Five Needles rocks 


• 


- 145 


Harpe island 


- 


* 


m 


76 


Flat island - 


_ 


- 101 


Hat islet 


- 


- 


- 


103 


— rock - 


. 


- 60 


Hatatvea cove 


- 


- 


« 


108 


Flint island - 


- 


- 112 


Hatutu or Chanal island 


* 


- 


111 


Four Croif ns island 


L- 


- 73 


Haume bay - 


- 


- 


- 


109 


French Frigate shoal 


. 168 


Havae pass - 


- 


- 


- 


40 


Friends, bay of 


- 


- 101 


Hawaii island 


- 


- 


- 


126 


Fumeanx island 


m ^ 


- 78 


Haymet rocks 


- 


- 


- 


6 








Height islet - 


- 


m 


- 


108 








Uemeni islet 


* 


- 


- 


108 


Gambia bank 


•1 m 


- 171 


Henderson island 


- 


- 


- 


64 


Grambier islands 


. 


- 68 


Henua-ataha coast 


- 


- 


- 


107 


Ganges island or reef 


- 174 


Hereheretue island 


- 


- 


m 


78 


Gardner island 


• " 


- 169 


Hergest rocks 


- 


« 


- 


110 


Gloucestf^r island 


. 


- 76 


Hervey islands 


- 


- 


- 


17 


Good Hope island 


» • 


- 78 


Hikea bay - 


- 


- 


- 


101 


Green island 


^ M 


- 173 


Hikueru island 


- 


- 


- 


78 


Greig island 


- 


- 85 


Hilo or Byron bay 


m 


- 


- 


129 


a 16615, 












N 





180 



INDEX. 



Hilo town ... 
Hiribaj - - - 

Hiti island - - . 

Hitiaa 

Hiva-oa island 
■ point 

Hohoibay . • - 

Holt island - - . 

Honden island • 

Honolulu . . - 

, baojs and beacons 
— , climate - 



-, directions 
-, harbour • 
-, lights 
-, patent slip 



Honuapo village 
Hood island 
Hotu-iti mount 
Hotumatuu pass 
Howe islands 
Huaheine island 
Hualalai mountain 
Hull island - 
Hurepiti bay 
Hurricanes - 
Huumi cove - 



Invisible bay 



Jacquemart rocks 
Jaone bay - 
Jarvis island 
Johnston island 



Kaalualu 
Kaavoloa cove 
Kaena point 
Kahaknloa point 
Kahukn point 
Kahulani island 
Kahulni harbour 
Kaieie Waho channel 
Kaihm bay - 
Kaiwi channel 
Ka Lae point 
Ealanao 



I'age 

130 

9 

81 

46 

96 

99 

102 

80 

79 

15S 

156 

154 

156 

155 

155 

154 

128 

100 

60 

38 

56 

52 

J 27 

13 

54 

4 

105 



- 108 



97 

98 

116 

166 



128 
136 
150 
141 
149 
144 
141 
158 
135 
148 
127 
147 



Kalana point 
Kalihi entrance 
Kaloa bay - 
Kamaka island 
Kamalalaea bay 
Kanala point 
Kaneohe village 
Kaoio point • 
Katiu island - 
Kan district 
Kauai island 
Kaualahn caves 
Kauefai island 
Kauiki head 
Kankura island 
Kaula island 
Kaulanamauna 

Kawai point 
Kawaihae bay 
^ village - 

Kawaihoa, cape 
— ^— point 
Kealaikahiki point - 
Kealakekua bay 
Keokea point 
Kilauea volcano 
King George islands 
Kingman' reef 
Kings island 
Kohala, mount 
Koko head - 
Kona peak - 

point - 

■ village 
Konahaunui mountains 
Konole point 
Krusenstem island - 
— — rock - 
Kuku point - 
Kulau district 
Kumukahi, cape 

— channel - 

Kutupui point 



La Desgraciada Island 
Laeloa or Barber point 
Lae-o-ka Ilio 

— - Laan point 

— — Mano point 



Page 
134, 14r 

- 152 

• 16» 

- 68- 

- 143 
. 159 

- 149 

- 14^ 

- 81 

- 128 

• 15S 
. 149 

- • 84 

- 14» 
. 85 

- 166 

- 188 
. 146 

- 158 

- 183 

- 133 

- 164 
158 

- 145 

- 135 

- 12» 

- 127 

86 

• 121 

- 84 

- 132 

- 158 

- 162 
. 164 

- 136 
. 150 

- 161 

- 8» 

- 167 
. 159 

- 14» 

• 128 
. 164 

8* 



- 12$ 

- 151 

- 147 

- 146 

- 134 



INDEX. 



181 



Lahaina 
Lahainaluna 
La Mesa island 
Lanai island 
La PerouBe mountain 
Lava point - 
Lawson bank 
Lajsan island 
Lazareff island 
Leah! h^ - 
Leleiwi point 
Lenna or Egg island 
Light, Hilo bay 

, Kawaihae bay 
Lahaina 

, Molokai island 

, Venus point - 

Lights, Honolulu 
— , Papiete 
. Lisianskj island 
Local attraction 
Lord Hood island - 
L*Ome bank 
Los Magos islands - 

Monges island • 

Low archipelago 



Maalaea Tillage 
Mackerrey village - 
Maclean point 
Magdelena island 
Mahaena pass 

— village 

Maha Honu pass 

Mahaiatea point 

Mahea islet -' 

Mahire valley 

Mahoti reef - . - 

Mahukona village - 

Maitea island 

Makahanaloa point - 

Makannena point - 

Maka-pu island 

Makapuu point, 

Makaroa island 

Makatea island 

Makee*s landing 

Makemo island 

Makena or Makee's landing 

Maiden island 



Page 

- 142 

- 143 

• 123 

- 145 

- 60 

- 185 

- 110 

- 169 

- 89 

- 157 

- )29 

- 164 

- 181 

- 134 

- 142 

- 146 

26 

- 155 

- 30 

- 170 
. 127 

71 
6 

• 123 
. 123 
62-89 



143 

143 

55 

92 

47 

46 

48 

35 

54 

40 

27 

132 

24 

130 

158 

68 

148 

68 

89 

144 

80 

144 

115 



Mana, point - 
Mangaia island 
Manga Beva island • 
■ islands- 

Manihi island 
Manual island 
Manuhangi island - 
Manui island 
Maomao point 
Mapeti island 
Maraa pass - 
' point - 

Maraetiria point 
Marchand island 
Margaret island 
Maria island 

shoal 

Theresa reef - 

Marion island 
Maro reef - 
Marokau island 
Marquesas islands - 
Marsh island 
Martin, cape 
Marua or Maupiti island 
Marutea island 
Masse island 
Matahiva island 
Mataiea village 
Mata-orio point 
Matarina anchorage 
Matavai bay 
Matilda reef 
Matotea mountain - . 
Matu pass - 
Matuhu reef . 
Ma-tura bay 
Maturei Vavao island 
Maui island - 
Mauki island 
Mauna Haleakala - 

Ika - 

— — Eaala 

Kea - 

Loa - 

Maupiti island 
McEvers poiut 
Mehetia island 
Melbourne island 
Mellish bank 
Melville islan^ 



Page 

- 161 

- 14 

- 68 

- 68 

- 86 

- 17 

- 76 

- 68 

9 

- 36 
34 

- 34 

- 41 

- 104 

- 73 

- 70 

- 121 

6 

. 55 

- 169 

- 77 
90-111 

- 68 

- 105 

- 55 
71,78 

- Ill 

- 89 

- 36 

- 46 
85 

- 26 

- 72 

- .47 

- 38 

- 38 

- 98 

- 71 

- 138 

- 15 

- 189 

- 139 

- 150 

- 127 

- 127 

- 65 

- 55 
24 

- 71 

- 174 

- 78 



INDBX. 



183 



Faena passage 
Paea Tillage 
Fahan point 
Faia, mount - 
Faipai pass • 
Fakakapose 
Falmyia island 
Faopao bay - 
Fapara village 
Fi^wa harbour 
Fapeari harbour 
Papeiha valley 
Fapeivi pass 

valley 
Fapenn pass 
point 
•- valley 



FapetoaS or Terin bay 
Fapenriri bay 
Fapiete harbour 
pass - 



-, town 



Faraoa island 

Faratahi bank 

Faroa point - - - 

Fatoa roadstead 

Fatrocinio Island 

Fanmea bay 

Faiunota or Low archipelago 

Peacock island 

Feard island 

Pearl and Hermes reef 

Pearl lochs - - - 



nver - 



Fenrhyn island 
Perahu, mount 
Pdrigot bay 
Peterel point 
phaeton bank 
-, port 
Philip island 
Pihaa point - 

,port - 

Pillar point - 
Pinaki island 
Piriati bay - 
Pitcaim island 
Fopotebay - 
Portland reef 
Predpriatie island 



Page 

. 87 
. S4 
. 166 

- 55 

- 54 
85 

- 120 

- 49 
85 
27 

- 87 
. 46 

45 

44 

. 48 

- 48 
48 

. 5p 

86 

. 29 

29 

81 

76 

45 

50 

. 148 

. 178 

. 102 

62-89 

- 87 
. 68 

- 170 

- 151 
. 151 
. 114 

7 
97 

- 136 
. 88 

- 39 
80 

> 42 
43 

- 136 

- 74 

9 

- 65 
. 85 
. 67 

- 79 



Prince William Henry island 

Puaman bay 

Pueo point ... 

Pueu, port ... 

-— village 

Puka Fnka island 

PnkaHraro ... 

Pukaruha island 

Puka-runga - - . 

Punaavia bay 

— point 

Punaluu ... 

Pnnamu valley 

Punch Bowl hill - 

Puneo village 

Punio reef - - - 

Funta Boa . . - 

Puowma hill 

Pururu islet - • • 

Putaiamo point 

Puu Olai hill 

Puuloa village 

Puuotohe pass 



Queen Charlotte island 



Baefisky islands 
Rahiroa island 
Baiatea island 
Bainbow waterfalls - 
Bana Hana Kana - 
Bangiroa island 
Bapa island - 

iti island 

Bapa-Nui - 
Bapae point > 
Raraka island 
Baroia island 
Barotonga island 
Bautirare pass 
Bavahere island 
BavaivalL island 
Beao island 
Begent point 
Beitoru island 
Bekareka island 
Besolution bay 
— — — island 



Page 
76 
97 

164 
44 
42 
79 
75 
74 
75 
33 
33 

128 
33 

158 

131 
83 
^0 

153 
36 
46 

144 

151 
40 



75 



81 
87 
52 
130 
60 
87 
7 
9 
58 
41 
84 
80 
14 
36 
77 
II 
74 
53 
78 
78 
95 
78 



184 



INDEX. 



Bevolving stonns. Society islands 

Bikitea, port - * - 

Bimitara island 

Boggewein, cape 

Boilers 

Bomanzoff island - 

Bonia, moont 

Botoava anchorage - 

village 
Bound hill . - - 

Borick island 
Bumtu island 



Page 
22 
69 
13 
60 

165 
86 
42 
83 
83 

144 
86 
12 



Saken island 
Sail rock 

Sala-j-Gomez island 
San ?ablo island 

Pedro island 

Sand island - 
Sandwich islands 
Santa Christina island 
Saunders island . - 
Schjetman reef 
Scillj islands 
Scott reef 
Sentinels islands 
Serle island - 
Seward road 
Sha-nahe bay 
Shark point > 
Shavay bay - 
Soaotoi reef - 
Society islands 
Spreckelsville 
Starback island 
St Paul's point 
St. Quentin island - 
St. Simon island 
Strawn island 



- 81 

- 105 

• 61 

- 73 

- 94 

- 171 
123-166 

- 95 

- 51 

- 167 
. 56 

- 62 

• 106 

- 74 

- 173 

- 98 

- 134 

- 103 

- 30 
19-57 

- 141 

- 114 

- 67 

- 78 

- 78 

- 121 



Taa-hu-ku bay 
Taapuna pass 

' valley 

Taenga island 
Taevaraa pass 
Tahaa island 
— — — pass - 



99 
32 
33 
80 
35 
54 
54 



Tahanea island 
Tahara, mount 
Taharoa pass 
Taharun river 
Tahiti 

Tahura island 
Taiarapn peninsula - 
Taiaro island 
Ta7-o-hae bay 
Tai-oa, port - 
Tupahia bay 
Taipari pass 
Taipi valley - 
Takapoto island 
Takaroa island 
Takume island 
Takutea island 
Tanga, mount 
Taoru islet - 
Tapahihill - 
Tapamann island 
Tapueraha pass 
Tapui island 
Tara-Vai island 
Taravao bay 

fort 

isthmus 

Tatakoto island 
Tau-ata island 
Taueri island 
Tauna island 
Taunoa channel 

— pass - ' - 
Tautira bay - 

— point 
Tchitchagoff island . 
Teahupn village 
Teaua point 
Teavarua harbour • 
Teavivo point 
Tehau point - 
Tehavaroa pass 
Tehere pass 
Tekaungarahu point 
Tekokoto island 
Telegraph hill 
Temaino reef 
Temaketa passage - 
Temarauri pass 
Tematangi island 
Tenararo island 



Page 
81 
26 
43 
35 
24 

166 
24 
84 

106 

107 
46 
33 

105 
86 
86 
79 
17 
9 
53 
48 
51 
39 
8 
68 
45 
44 
38 
74 
95 
78 
9 
28 
28 
43 
42 
81 
39 
38 
53 
49 
50 
86 
85 
9 
78 

157 
39 
84 
37 
72 

71 



M 



INDEX. 



186 



Tenaranga island 
Te-oho-te-kea rock - 
Tepoto island 
Teputo pass - 
Te Bauo Kao 
Terehe 
Teriu-baj - 
Terua&roa point 
Temaupa pass 
Tetamanu village - 
Tetiaroa is ands 
Tetopoto island 
T^naaa islet 
Tiaia point " 
Tides, Ahnrei harbour 

, Caroline island 

, Christmas island 

— — , Easter island 

, Fanning island 

, Fatu-hiva island 

, Grambier islands 

, Hilo bay 

— ^-, Honolulu 

, Low archipelago 

, Maui island -~ 

, Midway islands 

, Nukuhiva island 

, Palmyra island 

, Penrhyn island 

, Salary-Gomez island 

-, Society islands 



Tiitau pass - 

point " 

Tikapo, cape 
Tikehau island 
Tikei island - 
Timoe or Crescent island 
Tiokea island 
Tiputa entrance 
— — village 
Tivarupass - 
Thisb^ anchorage - 
Thomasset rock 
Thrum Cap island - 
Toa Tea ree£s 
Toahotu islet 



— ^— pass 
Toahutu bafdn 
— - point 
Toamaro point 



Page 

71 

105 

81 

38 

60 

35 

50 

46 

51 

84 

51 

79 

103 

49 

10 

118 

118 

61 

120 

94 

70 

131 

155 

64 

141 

178 

107 

121 

114 

62 

23 

44 

44 

105 

89 

86 

68 

86 

88 

88 

87 

53 

94 

75 

27 

54 

54 

38 

38 

54 



Toau island - 
Tohivea, mount 
Tomotal pass 

valley 
Tonoi point - • 

Topase, mount 
Topiro pass - 
Tower rock - 
Traitor's bay 
Tuanaka island 
Tuauru valley 
Tubai or Motu-iti • 
Tubuai bay - 
■ island 
■ or Auitral iilanda 

Tuheiava pass 
Tumakohoa passage 
Tupapaurau pass 
Tureia island 
Turret rock - - 

Tutataroa pass 
Tuuhora village 
Twin rocks - 
Two Groups 

Ua-huka island 
Ua-pu or Adams island 
Upolu point - 
Ura island - 
Utuhaihai point 
Utuofai village 
Uturoa harbour 
Utu Turoa point 

Vaekao bays 
Vahanga island - • 
Vahitahi island 
Vaiaia valley 
Vaiau pass - 
- ' '-| port • • 

river - 

Vaieo bay - 
Yaiere pass - 
Yaionifit pass 
Vaiote valley 
Vairaatea island 
Vairaharaha river - 
Vairao, port 
Vaitahu bay 



Page 
84 
49 
42 
41 
53 
60 
36 
99 
99 
81 
96 
53 
9 
19 
10-13 
89 
88 
51 
72 

131 
41 
82 

140 
77 

103 
101 
132 
86 
27 
46 
53 
48 

109 
71 
75 
40 
40 
41 
41 

101 
51 
49 
41 
75 
36 
39 
95 



li<5 



Wftitrift t^'ill4^« 






- 41 

- 7a 

- 1« 

' 11 

« 94 

- §7 

- Hi 

' 14» 

' IM 

- IdO 
' IdO 

- IW 
' 1.^ 
' 141 

\50, 162 

la^, 162 




'•J 



€1 



Talnti 

Tnbom isfaoids 



WolkoHkj »biid - 



Tetmaloff island 
Tonng'fl rock 



21 



164 
80 
67 



LONDON? Printed by Kyrb and Spottirwoode, 
Prlnt«ri to the Qaoen*8 most Excellent Migesty. 
Vor Her Mejenty's Stationery Offiee. 
[28685.- 800.— 12/85.1 



;/